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Cold War.pdf

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Professor Candace Sobers

THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR AND THE ATOMIC AGE INTRODUCTION : THE A MERICAN C ENTURY •More wide scale atrocities and more deaths in WWII than ever before -- 60 million people died! Henry Luce published an editorial in Life magazine in 1941 • •He argues that this is the American century because the US’s unique position (not being destroyed by WWI and because it is committed to liberal ideologies) it is responsible for global leadership •Published this article so that America would get involved in the war •At the end of WWII, the US loses 400,000 compared to the Soviet Union’s loses at 27 million! •The US is uniquely placed to bring order and prosperity •FDR is less concerned with having the moral high ground -- he is more concerned with security P LANNING THE P OSTWAR W ORLD R EFORMING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS •August, 1941 -- FDR and Churchill meet on a destroys off the coast of Canada •They issue the Atlantic Charter which basically describes what the world should look like One of the terms was freedom from fear and want -- at this time people looked • at is time and said that fascism arose because of the fear born after WW1 •1944 -- the Allies really believe they can win •To do this they have to fix international relations, fix global finance, and what to do with the bad guys •Yalta and Potsdam Conferences of February and July 1945 •At Yalta they decide that Germany should be denazified, it should be run by the Allies, and that the Soviet Union will enter the war against Japan 90 days after it defeated Germany •At Dumbarton Oaks in 1944 they create the United Nations -- a multinational system for governing global affairs •At Bretton Woods they create the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund EUROPE •Europe was in total disarray after the War -- Americans feared that these bad conditions would make communism more appealing The US gives $13 billion in aid to Western Europe in a European recovery plan known • as the Marshall Plan •It engenders a tremendous amount of goodwill from the United States and resentment from the East (Soviet Union and it’s satellite states) THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR AND THE ATOMIC AGE GERMANY •People think Germany should be punished -- but what happens if another Hitler comes out of this •Morgenthau Plan -- pastoralize Germany •Take away all its industry and transform it to farmland -- this way they can’t build tanks •The Five D’s Denazification -- hunt down surviving Nazis and try them • •Demilitarization -- Wehrmacht is destroyed •Division -- each Allied partner will be given a quarter to administer •Democratization -- flood Germany with American goods • They want Germans to see how American society functions, this way they can emulate it •De-cartelization -- breakup the big cartels that financed the war ASIA JAPAN •All Japanese were viewed as complicate -- could they all be reformed? •Believed that Japan could be reformed similarly to Germany -- because the history Americans share with them •De-mystify the Emperor -- he becomes a secular ruler •Democratization -- in article IX of the Japanese constitution, it says that Japan no longer has the privilege of declaring war •Make Japan over in the United State’s image •It is occupied by just the US T HE O RIGINS OF THE C OLD W AR •The US takes on a lot of responsibility, but this is not without cost •The Cold War is not inevitable, but it is not a surprise G EOGRAPHY AND W AR’SE ND •All of this depends of who is where and where your army is when the War ends -- the United States is in the West, and the Red Army has reached East Germany PERSONALITY MATTERS •Who is in charge matters, but context is still very important •The death of FDR and the succession of Truman -- FDR was really good at negotiating, he got along with Stalin; Truman has no experience with foreign affairs, he is kind of insecure (he is put into a position he never really wanted), Truman told off the Soviet representative, he feels he has to stop babying the Soviets, and he has a distrust of the Soviet Union/communism •Therefore everything the Soviet Union does, Truman will interpret it as hostile THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR AND THE ATOMIC AGE D IFFERENT IDEAS OF S ECURITY •Until the Americans were drawn into the war, they felt very safe because they were surrounded by 2 big oceans •The Soviet Union had been invaded 2 -- his goal was to make sure that this will never happen •He also wants to make sure that Germany does not advance before the Soviet Union •Stalin creates satellite states (a buffer zone) -- the United States looks at this as an attempt to takeover the world, bit by bit •By 1948 all these countries have communists in power •The US believes they still have reason to fear the Soviet Union -- Communism is global, Stalinist Terror becomes global news •The Soviets get really made that the US didn’t tell them about the atomic bomb I
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