Class Notes (810,488)
Canada (494,139)
History (3,204)
HIS271Y1 (246)
Erin Black (183)

HIS271 LEC 4.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

LEC 4 Oct 10 American History America's first 25 years: A rocky start creating the constitituon- the philadelphia convention, 1787 The vision of GOVERNMENT- legistlative branch (congress) executive branch (president) maine and new hampshire only two states witout winner takes all policy president still elected by electoral college. majority vote in electoral college necessary to take the presidency 4 times in US history, even with the majority of the ground votes, without the majority in the electoral colleg, a candidate cannot take office (last case Bush-Al Gore) Judiciary (supreme court) Supreme power lies in Judicial Review first law struck down constitution is ‘the highest law’ in the US. Major features- Checks and balances Distinction between democracy and republicanism (direct democracy) 3 parts of the constitituon address slavery, but nowhere is there a mention of ‘slave’ or ‘slavery’. It remains ambivalent on these counts. 7 ‘The migration and importation of such persons as any of the states shall now think proper (to admit shall not be prohibited prior to 1787) ’ slave trade, in essence. There was talk during Philadelphia regarding whetehr or not the US should participate in the migration and importation of such persons as any of the states shall now think proper (to admit shall not be prohibited prior to 1787) ’ Internal slave trade was still legal Ratification: Federalist (in favour of a binding constitution and more powerful government. Tended to be from an established political elite, deriving support from urban areas and larger landholders) and anti-federalists (saw the constitution as a betrayal of the revolution, and lacking in its protection of the rights of the people) eventually the incorporation of the bill of rights – the first ten amendments in the constitution –led to the adoption of the constitution, as a sort of compromise – due process of the law must be followed, right to carry arms, freedoms of speech press etc. Virginia and Massachusetts were very divided on the issue. Georgia was almost entirely compried of a federalist majority. 3/4ths of the states had to ratify it in order for the constution to be adopted. ‘no person held for servie of labour in one state escaping into another shall be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be returned to…’ 7 clearly a clause pertaining to slavery. Preamble – ‘we the people…’ excludes 1.native peoples (only allowed citizenship in 1925) native people, even lviing in territories long since ceded to the US, were foreign entities with whom ‘compromises’ had to be reached 2. other persons (i.e slaves) Free black population which was growing with the liberation of slaves, in many norhtern states enjoyed the same legal rights as the whites. 1790 National Immigration Act passed by the congress dealing with america’s immigration policies and the first american legistalition of american nationality – the process of becoming a citizen was restricted to free white persons. Brought before the Supreme court in the 1850s. The third population identified is the people, who are guaranteed the rights, freedoms, and protection of the constitution Washington – the search for stability Vice preisdent – john adams Portrait of George Washington still hangs in the oval office There was some contention as to how to address the president – his majesty, (Washinton preferred ‘His High Mightiness). Finally settled on the more subdued and respectful Mr.President (only property- owning adult white men were referred to as ‘Mr.’) Washington was in office for two terms – reelected in 1792 quite easily In the 1790s, his cabinet was The president, his cabinet (only five people, secretary of state (Thomas Jefferson – an anti-federalist, washington’s attempt at extending an olive branch), treasury (Alexander Hamilton, a federalist. Two top political advisors, on opposing sides.) sec of war, attorney general Hamilton had a comprehenseive economic program to stabliise the economy and handle debt, making america a competitior. 3 part plan – pay off debt, create a federal bank that would play a key rold in regualting the economy, encourage domestic manufacturing to reduce dependence on foreign governments Part 1 – Reprt on public credit. Federal gvt should undertake the handling of individual states’ debt. If the statews surrendered their debt, the federal gvt would be well within its right to collect taxes. Take old certificates of debt and roll them into new bonds which people could buy. The plan sparked controversy- as the bond system started to be implemented, about 80% of bond holders were northerners, worrying those in the south. Ciompromise was that the US capital would shift from philadelphia to D.C Part 2- Chartering a national bank to exert control over credit, set common interest rates across states, regulate currency and exchange rates. Federal gvt would own 20% of the bank, while 80% of the capital ame from private investors buying stock. This caused further controversy – James Madison thought a handful of rich men shouldn’t be givne control of the bank. Jefferson’s opposition was that there was no provision in the constitution by which the gvt could create a bank. Hamilton argued that congress could pass laws to help on the discharge of its duties and regulation of commerce was a duty. Washington agreed to give the bank a 20 year charter, on a trial basis, that did not necessarily have to be renwed. Bank was created in 1791. Evoking this ‘elastic clause’ is an example of how there are people belonging to two schools of thought ‘strict constructionist vs. loose constructionist’, the latter of whom see implied powers, a broader approach to interpretation) Part 3- Report on Manufacturers – for the us economy to be successful , the us has to be self-sustained. So home-based manufacturing should be encouraged. Balanced and self-reliant economy. In order to do this, subsidies were granted to encourage the early growth of domestic industries, and high tarriffs were put in place. Tarriffs ensured that the american products – which were ‘rarer’ to begin with and nautrally not as inexpensive as foreign goods, would have a chance in a competitive market.) Hamilton was aware new england and some of the middle colonies already had some manufacturing system in place. Hamilton’s plans were the catalyst for the more-than-one-party government. Conflicts in the west (with native peoples) and east) were also cataclysmic in the creation of new politcal parties. America’s borders, as designated by britain at the time of withdrawal, extended to the Mississippi river. The native peoples refuesd to accept that the territory around that area was part of america. 1770-90 the population doubled, increasing exponentially particularly in the ohio valley. Washington’s solution was to moblise the american army in this territory to take control. A number of battles were fought. Native peoples banded together, but were unsuccessful in staying in power. Battle of Fallen Timbers was led to the defeat of a number of tribes, and the army continued on to burn down their ground- cornfields etc. even after the defeat. The natives, made desperate by circumstances, signed the Treaty of Greenville 7 US gvt agreed to give 25,000 dollars worth of goods in return for the natives ceding the land. Washington was hoping to create a native dependence on american goods to ease into occupation. There was some oppositon over the treatment of the natives, but not over siezing the land Across the atlantic – the French revolution was a cause of celebration in america – a nation following in the same path seeking freedom etc. however, france rapidly fell into chaos and the americans were divided on whether to provide support or not. As of the treaty of 1778, america was allied to france. Washington delcared that the state was neutral and would continue to trade ewually with britain and france etc. britain began stopping american ships and siezing cargo. Angered by this, washington sent an envoy to resolve the issue and receive compersnation for confiscated cargoes. This led to the Jay’s Treaty (1795), signed by envoy John jay, the chief justic of the supreme court at that time. The treaty was unpopular- secures no compensation, allowed america 18 months to vacate western ports. Jay was an anglophile (effigies burned in his wake etc etc) By 1796, due to all these conflicts, two parites were beginning to emerge, made official by 1800. Washington was finished with office, advocated unity, suggested continuance of neutrality, and that US should steer clear of any entangling alliance with european powers because america had ‘fundamentally different interests’. Many of these ideas were proposed by thomas paine in Common Sense, but Washington’s policies were considered the foundation of america’s ieal foreign policy An alliance wasn’t sifned til 1949 John Adams went on to be president, passed a series of sedition acts, making it a crime to print anything against him, or the government. The resulting controversy added to the mounting desire to create new political parties. Federalists Faouvr centralised gvt Limit involvement of lower classes Pursue relations with britain over france Support urban manufacturing Pro national bank Pro private secotr financing of debt Anti Federalists or Democratic Republicans – evenutally the Republicans (1856 was when the republican party of today was founded, not the same thing) Faour weaker central gvt Involve common man France over britain (feeling of obligation beause of the original alliance) Aupport independent farmers Anti national bank Anti private sector financing of debt Jefferson, an anti-federalist, won the election in 1800. He called it the revolution of 1800 His political philosophy Liberalism (fear of the government’s influence, supporting laizes faire), republicanism (local power or state’s right should always trump federal power); agrarainism(and empire) america could only have a successful future if independent small farmers made up the foundation of the economy – or america’s values would suffer would be beholden to other people in the form of big manufacturers, a class of landless individuals. Jefferson spoke in terms of an empire of liberty – the louisiana purchase, in 1803 was an example. Napoleon was willing to sell and jefferson willing to buy. (spanish territory given back to the french, sold back to jefferson at only 15 mill dollars) TUT 1 Paine on slavery - Slave owners ‘man-stealers’ (biblical reference) if theft is punishable by execution, so is slavery. Anti-intellectualism in the United States Lec 5 the war of 1812 underlying causes. 1. closed all American ports to british vessels, ambassador to seek reparations, demand the parliament repeal impressment. America maintained the right to use force to retrieve deserters. Jefferson had little choice but to follow the advice of his secretary of state. Madison suggested an embargo on all trade with Britain. Jefferson took this to another level, deciding instead to impose a general embargo on all trade with Europe (1807 Embargo act), trade cut off with all nations at war – Britain, france, etc. extreme neautrality. The embargo was reminiscent of the non-importation strategy used by the colonists during the 1760s against townsend duties etc, but Jefferson didn’t account for the fact that the states had developed an extensive trade network in the short time since then, and a great deal of revenue came from trade – the inland areas participated through a mercantile network in addition to the coast. The economy plummeted as a result of losing
More Less

Related notes for HIS271Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.