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HIS271Y- Territorial expansion and the origins of the civil war Nov 13th 2013

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Erin Black

Nov 13 2013 HIS271Y- Territorial expansion and the origins of eth civil war I. Expansion and the American mindset  U.S believes that its America’s destiny to expand  This mindset has been there all along  “Westward the course of empire makes its way” exists since 1752  1819- U.S and Spain sign a treaty call the transcontinental treaty  The partial fulfillment of God’s divine plan of American expansion  From 1790s- 1830s ppl r moving and settling regardless  This territory is not empty territory- natives r living there II. Internal obstacles to expansion  Native Americans o Get them into debt so that the Gov can take their land! o The most determined person is Andrew Jackson o His prominent role in clearing out native Americans o Congress passes in 1830- an Indian removal act o There is certain territory given to the natives as well as supplies o The goal was to get them out of America o Cherokee nation resides in the state of Georgia o Ppl there r being nasty to the Cherokee o So the Cherokee fight back through negotiation though a treaty o They take this to court and sue the state of Georgia o It has to be through treaty- not congress o Surprisingly – they win! o So the Indian removal act is not applicable to the Cherokee o There is internal tension within the Cherokee nation o Some want to fight for their land and some want to take the money and leave so not to be bothered o So they sign a treaty called eth treaty of Echota in 1835 o Jackson doesn’t believe that they will leave so he conducts a forced march o This march was called the trail of tears- lots of ppl die along the way III. The ideology of manifest destiny  The phrase is not coined until 1845- words of John O’ Sullivan  Manifest destiny has its own core ideas- 3 part to this ideology o 1- the right to continental expansion and beyond o 2- The messiah complex: belief that it was smiled upon by God. God himself wanted the U.S to expand- the one true way- the kingdom of God is eminent in America o 3- The sense of historical transcendence: their way of life should be spread by others. Ppl should be remade in America’s image  A perfect society that others will emulate  All this all ties to expansion as a duty, right and a blessing from God  “what can stop us from the destiny of human progress”  There are some imitations to this cause ppl saw it in diff ways  There is a lack of unity in how to do this  Some say they don’t really have to do anything since it is destiny  Others say that destiny also need a push- militant advocates  Even if it meant going to war with Britain and Mexico  limitation 1- how to pursue it  limitation2- the question of eth importance of ports in California  question of eth importance of ports in California  limitation 3- what to do with new territory once it is acquired  This opens up the question whether the new territory should be slave states or not- this causes trouble IV. Manifest destiny in practice  1840s  Convergence of many thing: transportation revolution linking the country together and thus making expansion feasible  Also the rise of the abolitionist movement and eth sectionalisation of politics  Oregon, California and Texas o Oregon- small trickling of settlers- the idea of natural progression o Only 1000 Americans in California in 1845 o California was in Mexico in 1820 but American business took over and it became part of the U.S without too much dispute o Lots of land grants in Texas- this was initially done by the Spanish to get money by selling the land o Most of the ppl who settled already had slaves with them o Lots of immigration scares the Mexican Gov so he tries to discourage further settlement- o He does this by trying to abolish slavery- this then causes a Texas revolution by general Santa Anna o When talks broke down, the Texans claimed independence and then there was an outpouring of money and supplies that came from other southern states to become part of eth U.S o 1836- Battle of San Jacinto o The republic of Texas o Some ppl vote down annexing Texas o Texas represents the first instance when the slave state was rejected to be a state of eth U.S o Quincy Adams says eth seeds of disunion is slavery o 2/3 of congress has to
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