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From Colonies to a nation: the Revolution

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Erin Black

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From colonies to nation: the revolution 1. At home with empire, but… a. Most colonists took pride in being art of the empire b. Membership was prosperous –economy doing well c. Membership brought protection –when conflict btw Eng & French d. Further the desire of expansion e. 1750 f. this came at little cost to the colonies themselves g. each of the colonies had its own assembly –they have to an extent autonomy h. at this time they were more than happy to identify themselves as British subjects i. The Albany Conference and Plan i. The confrenece had been called by the Brits noth of Virginia and the Iriqua first nation federation—to prevent the outbreak of war btwn the 3 (including French) ii. The colonies were also spatting w. themselves iii. Benji proposes the Albany plan-a federation among the 13 colonies –for the colonies to have a united federation (similar to the Iraqua federation), a body capable of managing relations betw the colonies iv. The Brits didn’t like this plan, & almost all the colonies also had no interest in this, they didn’t want to surrender power to any new political body & enjoyed the autonomy they had v. Thus the first attempt to unite is shot down vi. Outbreak of war btwe English and French shortly after in 1754, and colonists commission malissia groups for the british crown vii. They however see themselves differently than the brits back home viii. Their proud of the sense of freedom they enjoy—as exemplified by their own colonial assemblies ix. So long as America was alloed to flourish under Brit control, they were happy being part of the empire x. But when Brits start rethinking abt these ideas xi. This triggers the 7yr war xii. Americans see themselves as a different breed from Brits back home bc they enjoy more opportunity j. The 7yr war i. This breaks out btw English and French for Ohio Valley ii. Its not just in NA but Carriben and Europe itself iii. To the colonists it’s the Indian and French war, bc they stood in the way of them wanting to expand iv. The global war continue until 1764 v. Both colonial and british soldiers share in the hardship of battle and glory of victory vi. w/ the French defeat and surrender NA becomes reorganized, and eliminating the French presence in the E seaboard vii. take the cause of the war itself viii. the Spanish took over France’s territory west of the missisipi ix. French presence in NA formally ended x. Colonists and Brits interpreted the victory differently —they interpret in as the result of the Brit army itself , and they also upset @ smuggling w/ French xi. Colonists believe on the other hand, turned out in force only to be relegated to the grunt work of Brits xii. Even though Britain wins, it comes at a cost—English are in massive debt –national debt doubled since start of the war & looking @ ways to pay it off xiii. By way of paying it off, they start looking to the colonists as a source of revenue via taxes xiv. Colonists revolt against this idea xv. England starts to exercise greater control over its colonies via tax and the colonists ask what right the Brits have to do this k. Tension btw Empire and Colonies i. This lasts a decade ii. Many sources of the tension: 1. Brits leave behind standing armies and the royal proclamation (1763) a. Colonists go after territory of the Native and the Brits are forced to spend more money 2. Former French allies are upset that they were not included in the treaty—this leads to a rebellion 3. Pontiac’s Rebellion –he persuades a series of raids to attack settlements and British ports 4. British draw a line that settlement behind the line of the appalation mountains is prohibited – but its hard to enforce and the colonists breach the linethis is the 1 source of tension 5. Now the colonists are really mad @ Brits iii. The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763-65 1. This is part of the British plan to pay and make $ to help pay debt 2. The Brit Prime minister at the time is George Grenville –says that colonists should pay for the debt since their part of the empire 3. Sugar Act—raises the duty on sugar that is imported into the colony—tax on the sugar and Brit control of shipping 4. The colonists are not outright upset at the sugar act bc most interpreted it as a way of regulating trade—it wasn’t much different than the existing navigation act 5. Stamp Act (65)—specially embossed paper on which everything has to be printed and the colonists had to pay for it, which upsets them 6. This gave them a change to oppose the act since they were notified in advance 7. Colonial Assembly (Virginians) British citizens— and as such, they are entitled the same right as ppl back in England, and among them is the right ot sell taxation—in the Brit tradition up to this period, is seen as a gift granted to the Monarch, this is where the idea of self-taxation comes into place 8. They start to argue, the colonies shouldn’t be tax bc they were not being presented, there was no parliament, so the only ppl who had the right to tax Virginians were the Assembly of Virginia 9. What starts to happen is the colonists start to ask question, such as by what authority do they do this? Qs having to do with representation 10. Parliament does have some legislative authority –esp w/o representation, they start to see btw external taxes (trade) and internal taxes (can only be self-imposed) 11. Individual citizens also object to it, the 1 organized resistance comes from Massachusetts esp Boston, under the leadership of Samuel Adams organized themselves in a group called Sons of Liberty – what they do is try to prevent the implementation of the Stamp Act by convincing the guy who distributes this paper that his safety is in jeopardy, so they harass the reps who have anything to do with the Stamp Act 12. This is successful and the Stamp Act is abolished and score one for the colonists a. They then issue the Declaratory Act (1766)—they have the right to legislate to them in all cases what so ever, which includes internal taxes 13. Townshend Duties and Economic Retaliation, 1767-1770 14. Townshend Duties—in the spirit of the Declaratory Act he will put duty on all kinds of products, but the duties (tax) isn’t very high, it was more about the point to enforce that parliament had the right to tax them –this is also used to pay for the salaries of the royal governer, making the governer more independent 15. Samule Adam leads the massachusett assembly and argues a. The new Townshend Duties subverts the proper relations btw a ppl and their rulers b. They circulate a petition—and they come up with a strategy to retaliate, which is a boycott of British goods ----Non-Import— they no longer will import from Britain anymore as retaliation, but this is difficult to enforce, but this does start to hurt British trade and British merchants pressure the British parliament to repeal this c. Women’s place in the colonies—mosof the men that participated in this non- importation—women oppose this bc they enjoyed some things that use to be imported d. Daughters of Liberty—start organizing massive cloth spinning—making their own clothing so no need to import, part of the patriotic effort, upshot pf this, women start to think that they too have grievances abt their place in the larger society in which they live e. Brits send a large military in Boston 1768, bit this doen’t cause a problem in 1770 16. The Boston “Massacre” 1770—only 5 ppl died but they colonists call them massacre i. The massacre is used as a propaganda tool to attack the brithish 17. The tea party and the coercive acts, 1773-74 i. The Tea Duty is still there ii. Smuggal
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