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HIS271Y1 (258)
Erin Black (183)
Lecture

his 271 29 01 14 1920 america

12 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIS271Y1
Professor
Erin Black

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A cold war and affluent society America 1945-1960 i. Origins of the cold war ii. Containing communism abroad iii. Battling subversion at home iv. The affluent society v. Hints of dissatisfaction th Exam is april 9 At end of ww2 us was worlds strongest nation they came out better than others not in regards to recovering They held the worlds larghest army They possessed the atom bpmb alone Had woprlds largest economy Established instutions such as the world bank Diplomatically they are one of the major allies unlike what happened at end oiw ww2 where they backed away They create united nations in april 194 = things are looking good for us at end of ww2 There are still challenges Will Americas prosperity continue when they divert back to non war like activities (yes it can) Foregin affairs bringoing stable order ion a world of conflicting intereststs This answer is more diccicult, they face comp[etition form the soviet union and communisim The nature of the alliance in ww2, was a alliance of nessissity united against one enemy there was no great trust between eachother Ex the soviets were left out the atom bomb project (us and brition) Statlin had spies in the manhattan project Once common goal is ach9ieved is difficult to keep alience to getehr because they botth had diff veiows oif post war world Ameica saw ideals of free trade, national self determination etc Russia doesn’t like theses ideals he builds sphere of influence in east Europe so Russia stops being invaded =they both have different visdisons Us every1 need securities Ussr statlin is will ing to take aways others secutrities in for their own They were on the same side in ww2 Fdr hoped for a friendloy post war relationship but this does not happen What went wrong? Yalta feb 1945 conference They deal wioth issues like the united nations ex what will we do with defeated Germany Soviets are already intrenced in east Europe as they pushed west during the war so now they have a nice big presence in countries like Poland where they set up mini guvs Some how ths UN were all to take a spere of occupied german berlin will be equally shered between the nations this is not emnt to be permanentzone the nation will havre authority buit this is ment to unify Germany in the end although this is not briught up at yaltanswersw are veryt vaugh FDR hope to work will Russia after wards Hye realized statlin had security concerns in east Europe He hopes to address some of soviet concerns The American people think they are fighting for freedom and democracy thus they mostlikly will not settle for any plans deals with statlin Another problem FDR dies The problem 9is statlin is a pernoid person he did not trust frd but hhe did feel he could work with him His sence of security takes a blow Their deals were personal, Truman coming to power had no ideal of what deals were made with statlin Ex he only finds out about the att9om bomb when he takes power In potsdem they met for the firsttime and church hill looses election and is out of power Another blow to soviet security This was part of the reason for the cld war The role of personality Turman was hotheaded Had no ideal about foregin afairs so he compensatedby acting tough Truman interpets that statlin not holding elections as breaking there deal Truman says he was tired of babysitting the soviets in eastern Europe Although there s not musch he could dop because they army is already there so he draws a line else where The atom bomb Only the US has this causes secutroity issues to statlin After they drop thes 1str bomb statlin is understanding when hersomia is bombed on 6 The soviets ingage in pacific war as their deal was then nagasaci I bombed To statlins perspective it was less of a point to the japs then moptre to Russians that us did not want them their while there shoips were on the way to pacific This creates a prolonged arms race (atomic /necular arms) Each side is less likely to engage with achother physically but by nukes The role of idreology comunisim vs capitialisim These two conflict with eachother It infuses arms race Cold war becomes a chessboard byu bringing other nations into the mix A competition that leads winstion churchill to say there is a iron curtin across the continent where people live in fear Truman was not going to let the us loose anymore ground to the ireon curtin To preveniit its exopansion beyind where it currently has insluence ii. Containing communisim abroad George cannon and containment He spent much time in the soviet union He is called upon to exolain what statlin does He gives a internal pol speech (not ment to nbe international) the wolrd is divided into camps and conflict is inebitable States asks kennan what fdoes statlin menat He relplies in wehat is called the long tellagram 8000 words of morris code He says the soviets have a sense of insting to their long standing thoughs of invasion form the west d back to nepoliansimecurity plus marxis lennon, We can no longer have a working relationship 1946 The best us can hope for is to contain soviet uinfluence In march 1947 the Truman doctrine Greece and turkey have civil unrest The greek coomuist party attempted to take over their country (nopt aid from Russia) they ask britton for aid Brittion can not help- because theya re having a hard time recopvering form ww2 themsleves they say ask the us Truman asks for economic aid for Greece and turkey also having problem syas there are 2 types of ways of lving in the world, whats going on in Greece and turkey could lead to subjgationelse where so its us duty to be thedefender of the free world Congress passesd aid of 400million $ “It must be must be Americas policy to defend the free world” says truman This language is globalnot just to Greece and turkey (to the us if anything was wrong in the world it was due to communisim) Kennan said only certain partys of the world (3rdwolrd) were not threats Kennan is fine with aid to Greece Containment strategy Consistsst of diff parts 1. Seconomic and m9ilitary aid to friendly nations ex Greece Another was the “marshal plan” secetary of state He wants to funnel aid to western Europe to get back on track and minimize appeal of communits parties in western Europe Starts with agvingin 4 billion in 1948 By 1952 17 billion is given to rebuild Europe The us also arms others to hel[p them against communisim 2. Building of a network of alliences The nest 2 ex are nato 1949 and seto (southe east Asian org) 1954 NATO the first peace time alliance that the us has entered in its history and 1 bindinhg alliance that us hads joined sin 1778 with france which they quickly got out A mutual defence acft if a member nation is attacked all member nations must join in defence This was to deter other nations ex Russia They make theire own called the warsa act 3. Building a national security state for us (streamline defwence) Prior to ww2 they did not have a large military this changes as result of national secutity act 1947 Dept of wear is replace with dept of war. Also national security council for better coordination Also the CIA is born in 1947 the OSS was their predecessor 4. Espionage and covert opperations 19
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