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University of Toronto St. George

HIS271: Lecture #3: The Colonies until 1750s: - Different colonies start to develop v/different economies Demography: - Rapid population growth in British colonies, compared to New France & New Spain - In 1700, about 250,000 colonists. In 1770, over 2 million colonists (8-fold increase) - Population growth is a result of both natural increase & continued immigration (immigration only accounts for 1/4th of the increase) - Growth is happening in all the colonies, but faster in New England - New England children were more likely to survive until adulthood than Chesapeake colonies, more female empowerment - Immigration is so important (although only providing for 1/4th the increase) as it’s creating a diverse/pluralistic society - Scots & Scots-Irish largest immigrant group, followed by Germans. Fewer Brits came, due to more stable situation in Britain at that time. - 1707 law change in Britain allows for other British Iles to come over - Germans, unlike the very poor Scots & Scots-Irish, were generally better off (not in poverty back home) - By 1700, nearly all colonists lived within 50 miles ofAtlantic coast. - Even so, these colonists are already laying claim to much larger swaths - Land is super-cheap in N/America at the time (you could buy 1 acre for 1 shilling) note: 3 shillings a day is average salary Different patterns of growth and settlement among the colonies: -New England grows about 6-fold during this time (people largely put off by perception of Puritanism, also the fact that it’s already pretty densely settled) - The Middle Colonies pop. increases about 10-fold, helped along a great deal by immigration - In 1700, more ppl live in New England than middle colonies. By 1760, middle colonies now larger - Immigrants viewed as a land of opportunity - There are many indentured servants (different type from Chesapeake area) as they paid their own way across the ocean. They then contracted themselves out as indentured servants in shops and such - Middle colonies get filled with small farmers - Southern colonies also has 10-fold increase, but largely due to importing ofAfricans of slaves - by 1770, there are more people in southern colonies than in Middle Colonies or New England Development of urban centers pick up dramatically. Still small by European standards, but growing rapidly. New York in 1700: 5000. 1770: 21,000 Philly in 1770: 22,000 - Cities start to plan out their development. Philadelphia starts this trend. Charleston follows Philly’s lead. Charleston is pretty unique b/c its a southern city. There were few cities, and the ones that exist are ports (for receiving slaves and exporting tobacco and cotton) - Overall, it’s still a minority of the pop in British colonies that lives in urban areas, but the impact is so important (seeds of consumer culture, ideas [newspapers]) Colonial economics: - Most colonists had a higher standard of living in 1750 than the peoples of New France & New Spain - By 1770, it is similar in standard of living to Western Europe New England’s Economy: Doesn’t have great growing weather, and similar climate to Britain. But it does have space for livestock (becomes pretty big export back to colonies), and fish (huge export) - Large number of artisans, replacing early imports. The growth of a large skilled trade class - These skilled trade class centered in cities like Boston - Alot of shipbuilding as well Middle Colonies: -Also able to plug into theAtlantic economy (trade, ships, etc...) - Agriculture a little more prominent (Pennsylvanian wheat becomes a big commodity) - Alot of artisans, similar to Souther Colonies: - Much more oriented around Tobacco (that’s the biggest one), also cotton - represents 1/3 of entire exports from the entire BNAeconomies - Chesapeake is richer as a result - Whites in south 4 times richer than New Englanders, and 3 times richer than middle colonies So by 1750, a successful colony that makes money has been established The Growth of Slavery: - Slavery starts to become more economically feasible in 1680 - Increase in supply of slaves due to the rise of dedicated slaving companies, prices start to drop - This is more desirable, b/c it doesn’t have the same problems that indentured servitude does (eliminated the legal rights that they had) - Also attracting b/c it’s a lifetime of servitude, potential for more slaves through reproduction - IMPT: The distinction for America, in terms of slaves (ob
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