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Lecture 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

th Lecture 10: Wednesday November 16 , 2011 Territorial Expansion and the Origins of the Civil War I. Expansion and the American Mindset  After the Louisiana Purchase, the US continues seeking for more ways to expand across the continent  The Transcontinental Treaty, 1819 o Gives America access to a chunk of land, sharing the rest of the continent with Spain II. Internal Obstacles to Expansion  The Presence of Natives o Jefferson plans to hook the natives through trade and then either assimilate them or move them away  Andrew Jackson – most involved regarding removal of natives o Forcefully removes them from the Mississippi o Doesn’t think they have anything or have the right to anything o Stated the American people’s concern for natives as the reason for wanting to remove them  If they aren’t removed they will become extinct o Indian Removal Act, 1830  Designate what is now Oklahoma to be the new home of all Native Americans  Cherokee Nation decide to sue for their land and the Supreme Court recognizes their land and themselves as a sovereign nation, therefore Georgia cannot evict them  Jackson thumbed his nose at this and encouraged Georgia to continue o Treaty of Echota, 1835  Some Natives sign away their land for $5million, transport to the West and food and tools for one year o This wasn’t good enough for Jackson – sends federal troops to escort natives to their land – Trail of Tears III. The Ideology of Manifest Destiny  3 main parts to manifest destiny o 1. A belief on the part of Americans that they have a providentially or historically proven right to expansionism o 2. Americans believed that their way was the one, true way – sense of Messiah-ism (ordained by God) o 3. The American way will be spread to others – will be made in the American way  Manifest destiny identities American’s mission to humanity – a city on a hill o Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness fused with the need for territorial expansion  John O’Sullivan coined the term manifest destiny  Limitations o 1. Even through Americans agree on expansion, there is a lack of unity regarding how to accomplish this o 2. Who gets what  Southerners want Texas (cotton)  They want California for its port  Southern democrats want Oregon for its fertile land o 3. What to do with land that wants to enter the US (either as a free or slave state) IV. Manifest Destiny in Practice  1840s o Links the country together o Government sponsored exploration of territory  Oregon Trail mapped out in independence – John Freemont was the main mapper  Oregon, California, Texas o Americans started moving to Oregon in the wake of the 1830s depression  Found sites for agricultural development  Possession of Oregon is starting to take on a divine right in the US o Americans had been sai
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