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Lecture 12

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Erin Black

Lecture 12: Wednesday November 30, 2011 Reconstruction Conceived, and Abandoned I. The Impact of the Civil War  About 10% of the South’s white male population is killed or badly wounded  The south is economically destitute, bankrupt, and high in debt o Also suffers a psychological effect now that slavery is gone  South needs to be re-built and the rebel states have to be brought back into the Union II. Wartime Planning  Lincoln started planning for the eventual Union victory as early as 1863 o His primary aim was to restore unity as rapidly and peacefully as possible  Lincoln’s Vision o Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction, December 1863  Offered a full pardon to any rebel who renounced secession and recognized abolition  Congress’s Plan o Wade-Davis Bill  Wanted 50% of the voters to take an allegiance oath before being readmitted  Wanted that equality of freed men be guaranteed under law  Lincoln pocket-veto’s this – doesn’t sign the Bill  The Question of Land and Labour o Freedmen’s Bureau (Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands)  Distributes land, clothing, and food for those newly freed slaves who didn’t know what to do  When the former slaves started to earn an income that had to start paying rent until they had enough to buy it III. Presidential Reconstruction  Andrew Johnson takes over when Lincoln is assassinated  Loyal to the Union, pro-war, governor of Tennessee prior to being Lincoln’s running mate (safe-Southerner)  Announces that he will follow the plan Lincoln had made before his death  Southern Response o Were not happy o South and North Carolina refused to renounce their secession order o Mississippi completely ignores the 13 Amendment o Johnson, by failing to enforce the requirements fuels the resistance o Black Codes  Sought to push Blacks back into plantation roles to try and revert to slavery  These codes ensured that Blacks lacked the rights that American citizens had IV. Congressional Reconstruction  Congress passes Bills to extend pressure over the south – keep them from trying to take advantage of everything  Congress wants to prolong the Freedmen’s Bureau o Johnson veto’s it – Congress try to un-veto it, but don’t quite make it  Civil Rights Act o Affirms the rights of blacks to enjoy the same rights as whites o Affirms a huge amount of rights for blacks o Johnson veto’s – Congress
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