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Semester 2 Lecture 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

th Semester 2 Lecture 1: Wednesday January 11 , 2012 The New South and the Far West I. The New South  The historical term applied to the post-Civil War American South  New in that there is no longer slavery  The south’s focus remains agricultural with cotton production as its primary unit  Blacks still provide the vast majority of the labour force  Sharecropping o Amounted to a different type of servitude for slaves  Cotton production made up over half of the country’s exports  The Civil War had crippled the South’s economy  Industrializing Efforts o Initially, the Republican governments are the opponents of industrialization in the South o Henry Grady – The Atlanta Constitution  Was the largest circulated newspaper in the South  Grady repeatedly editorialized in it encouragements for industrialization  The South now wants to introduce textile mills into its economy/industry  By the 1900 the South is leading in American textile production  Southern industrial achievements lagged behind Northern industry because of their lack of experience with machines and their preference for black labour  Land, Tenancy, and Sharecropping o Freed men wanted their own land and to work their own land, but as of the 1880s, only 20% of freed slaves owned their own land  White landowners had land with no one to work it o Sharecropping  The person who owns the land provides a portion of that land for others, who in exchange provide their labour and the two split the production 50/50  On the surface, this worked well  By 1880, over 50% of blacks worked on the sharecropping system and the landowners did everything they could to make the freed slaves indebted to themselves or creditors  Landowners who are wealthy enough act as shareholders/creditors to their labourers o Crop Lien Economy  Credit is extended in exchange for a lien on the crop – the creditor has a right to the crop that the sharecropper is growing – very hard for the blacks to get ahead  Tends to be a form of slavery in that it keeps freed blacks extremely depended on white landowners o The Jim Crow South  This almost naturally falls into place because redeemers tended to believe that blacks were inferior and that close contact between blacks and whites would pollute white society – therefore segregation  Eventually segregation becomes law – laws are based on the local level and then on the state level making public places segregated  The Supreme Court ruled in 1883 that discrimination was not outlawed by private business owners  Plessy v/ Ferguson (1896)  Plessy sat in a railway car that was reserved for whites. He was forcibly removed and he sued. The Supreme Court ruled that segregation was lawful so long as the segregated facilities were equal – “separate but equal”  This ruling stood until 1954 II. The Beginnings of the Civil Rights Struggle  I
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