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Lecture

Wednesday March 21.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS271Y1
Professor
Erin Black
Semester
Winter

Description
Wednesday March 21, 2012 The Struggle for Equality I. The Civil Rights Movement at High Tide  A large number of African Americans had been voting in the US for some time now  The Cold War heightened sensitivity within the US regarding racial issues  By the end of the 1950s, we see the rise of Martin Luther King and the Southern Leadership Conference  Greensborough, NC – Feb 1960 o Nonviolent activism begins at Woolsworth’s Lunch Counter when 4 young black students sat at the lunch counter but were refused service  The next day they came back with 23 other students – refuse to move, don’t talk to anyone/bug anyone  Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) o A protest organization of college students o The youth who are participating make nonviolence their philosophy but want a voice separate from their parents as part of the US  Freedom Rides o Launched to enforce integrated buses o An interracial team of volunteers boarded the buses and rode them across the South for over a year and a half  They were often met with opposition, beaten, verbally assaulted, etc if they got off the bus to eat or go to the bathroom o Bobby Kennedy believed the pre-planned violence was getting out of hand so he ordered police and security to be in place at each stop along the route o James Meredith – air force pilot wanting to finish his final year at uni  Enrolls at the University of Mississippi – oldest and most racially intolerant university in the South  He’s met with a riotous mob, the administration doors are locked to prevent him from registering – Bobby Kennedy dispatches troops to allow him to enroll  He does complete is education, but under the protection of US Federal Marshalls o George Wallace - 1963  Stands in the doorway of the cafeteria of the University of Alabama shouting for permanent segregation  Birmingham, 1963 o March on downtown Birmingham to protest inequality and segregation o Protestors have fire hoses turned on them, the K-9 unit is turned on them, cattle prods, etc o This pushes Kennedy to decide to move on Civil Rights  He’s also responding because the civil rights movement has grown drastically by both whites and blacks alike  March on Washington – August 1963 o Most famous march – Martin Luther King makes his famous I Have a Dream speech  1964 – only 2 million of the 5 million voting aged blacks were registered to vote  Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964 o Succeeded in registering thousands of blacks as voters o President Johnson realizes that much more needs to be done and in a way that will get him more support II. Militant Black Activism  Mostly centered in the North  The Struggle in the Urban North & West o Is more about unequal status across the board  Discrimination in wages, hiring practices, housing, etc o Did contain boycotts, sit-ins, etc. initially o The focus is mostly on housing and economic opportunity o Picketed the offices of “slum lords” to keep up black communities o White suburbia took over, as blacks are trying to break in, violence and riots begin to erupt o Large scale riots begin to take place in major cities  Harlem, LA, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, etc.  All were deeply rooted in racial inequality  The Black Power Movement o Malcolm X  Thought that the Civil Rights Movement as led by King was an exercise in self-hatred  Was against segregation  Saw no American Dream, only an American Nightmare  After his pilgrimage to Mecca he began to speak of separation as a figurative sense instead of a literal sense – begins to accept the integration of whites and blacks  Assassinated by Islamic extremists who believe he is gaining too much power o Stokely Carmichael and SNCC  Stokely begins to change SNCC so that it starts including violence by 1968  Beings to eliminate white memberships and keep it strictly for blacks  The rallying cry for the Civil Rights Movement changes from “We Shall Overcome” to “Black Power” o The Black Panther Party  They wanted power to determine the destiny for their community via housing, jobs, etc.  Established free health clinics, breakfast programs, patrols to protect blacks from whi
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