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HIS271 - Recreating the "Old" in the "New World" (Lecture 2)

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Grant Brown

Recreating the “Old” in the “New World” Wednesday, September 22 / 2010 th  North Atlantic Trade Routes (16 c.)  Mercantilism = fixed amount of wealth in the world (wealth as in gold and silver)  To achieve economic success you had to sell as much as you could while limiting the amount of a specific product you needed to buy  Self-stuffiness = power  Owning a colony made sense because you would end up having a market where you could sell things  Mercantilism dominated the thinking of most empires/rulers th  16 century, both the French and English monarchies financed explorers in hopes of finding passages  Sir Walter Raleigh said, “Whosoever commands the sea commands the trade; whosoever commands the trade of the world commands the riches of the world, and consequently the world itself.”  Cultural Exchanges  In trading with Native American communities, factories in Europe began producing/manufacturing products to meet the needs of these native Americans.  Another example is imposing ones faith on other people/groups of people/other nations (Europeans were trying to convert some indigenous populations)  in the end, both sides were changed.  New Netherland  Funded by the Dutch West Indian Company  They quickly became immersed in the fur trade, and created some outposts like the French.  The Dutch offered land, governing power, etc to people who could bring more than 50 settlers.  There was a great desire within England to expand into America.  England in the World  Sir Walter Raleigh received a 6-year charter from Queen Elizabeth allowing him to explore the eastern coast of North America.  Raleigh found an island, called Roanoke Island (right off the coast of North Carolina).  By the time the ship arrived in Roanoke, there was only 100 people left  they also did not want to work on sustaining a proper life there, which created a great deal of tension between the people on the ship and the people of Roanoke.  The journey cost about 30,000 pounds, and there was little to no gain.  He sent a 2 expedition to try and settle Roanoke one again.  The Lost Colony  The new group off 100 people failed miserably, so White returned to England to try and gather some much needed supplies.  When White returned, nobody could be found; except for a sign, which led historians to believe, the 100 people went to the place written on the note left on a tree. Why did Roanoke fail?  Nobody was prepared (thought they could live off the land/little money)  Thought they could depend on the native Americans  Couldn’t find an easy way to coexist with people already living on the land. The goal here was settlement and speedy reward. What lessons can be learned from Roanoke?  Expeditions were not large/organized enough to sustain an establishment in Roanoke  Jamestown, 1607  Jamestown was founded by private interests  Virginia Company of London (they were looking for riches  silver and gold).  Seemed doomed from the start.  In 1606, hopes were high for the people that set sail, but many died along the way.  Virginia in the summer = EXTREMELY HOT & HUMID  people were catching Malaria.  Most of the people were searching for Gold instead of preparing shelters and looking over the land.  Another important fact is that it was all men in Jamestown (not a lot of reproduction)  Ads were created promising land, transport to Virginia in exchange for a 7 year period of work).  By the fall of 1609, 500 people were living in the colony.  After several passenger/supply ships failed to reach Virginia, disaster occurred.  The Starving Time  Some people ate other people (had to kill each other)  Sometimes, people dug up bodies for food  By the time food came, 60 people out of 500 were still living  John Smith said this happened due to laziness  But it mostly occurred because of illness, difficulties, etc. Virginia succeeded because of tobacco  Tobacco  In 1616, it was introduced  Jamestown expanded to supply more land to grow the crop  Also needed more labor  Encouraged migration by offering land to them  Now, more families were coming to Virginia because the more people you brought, the more land you received.  Men outnumbered women 6:1  1619-1624 = more than 500 migrants had settled into the economy  We can see growing families, creation of churches, and the creation of a government  The House of Burgesses  Created a link between the colonists and the land  Marks a shift away from an economic venture, to a transplantation society.  Europeans tried to recreate some of their old world into this new one.  Even though settlers tried hard to recreate this, certain limitations arose.  In 1619, a Dutch ship arrived, and traded African slaves for food.  Captain John Smith  Story of Pocahontas demonstrated the fragile nature of these colonies  Pocahontas was the daughter of John Smith.  Pocahontas (11-12 years old at the time), saved Smith from his death  In time, Pocahontas learnt English.  As the colony grew, they took up more land.  Pocahontas was captured by the English, and was married by John Ralph (also her tutor).  In 1616, Pocahontas visited England.  Pocahontas died in 1617 in England of natural causes, though her son, Thomas, survived.  Another war broke out in Virginia.  The Second Anglo-Powhatan War  “The massacre will be good for the Plantation, because now we have just cause to destroy them by all means possible” – John Smith  When the Powhatan’s were uncooperative, they were destroyed.
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