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2nd phase of Cultural Revolution.docx

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Paul Thompson

1973-1975—―second phase‖ of the cultural revolution st  one of the major issues in the 1 phase of CR was the identification of people in position of authority within the party who are taking the st capitalist road—the major target of the CR 1 phase  2of the people who were specially targeted were Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Liu has been a party member in 1925, but in the cultural revolution, he was accused as taking the capitalist road  Deng has been in the party since 1924, he was known as the number 2 party person to be persecuted. He was striped off all the party titles.  After 1969, CR was basically over, although many of the people who participated were still in power.  In the early 20 thcentury, many people figured out that China’s situation in global scaled changed dramatically, Confucianism is no longer useful to provide answers to the questions of China, represented by the May Fourth movement.  Confucianism was the name for everything holding China back from making the transition. It was also the symbol of all the bad Chinese remnants of the past that left in Chinese present  Lin Biao: 1965 organized the circulation of the littler red book  During the CR, the little book became the necessity for everyone  In 1966, by 1970 the whole Mao thing had gone a little weird, maybe we don’t need this religious belief for Mao, so Lin Biao became a little bit unflavored by the top leaders of the party.  Lin Biao died in 1971.  Following, there was an extensive purge in the party who followed Lin.  How did Confucianism and Lin were combined together?  In 1973, a scholarly movement emerged in China around the problem of studying Chinese history—how you should understand the past became an issue. One of the charges Lin made against Mao was that he compared Mao with Qin Shihuang, and as a tyrant.  Confucius was usually referred to in this movement as Kong Laoer—the implicit Laoda was referred to Lin Biao  The transition:  Economy  Family  One-China policy  How did Deng take power?  5 super super elites in the Party: Mao Zede, Zhou Enlai, Zhude, Liu Shaoqi, Chenyun  After Mao died, Hua Guofeng became the chairman. Chen Yun made Deng Xiaoping rehabilitated, and restored his position in the party.  Deng and Chenyun both advocated the free marketing, so being attacked as the people who take the capitalist road.  One of Chenyun’s most close associate was Sun Muqiao.  In July, 1979 Chen yun became the head of the –he is re-orienting the party from away emphasize on party relations to a single goal—economic achievements. Under the 4 modernizations.  Here, science and technology are given a privilege place in the development of China. The goal of the party became economic growth of all other things. Macro level planning is turned over to trained discipline beaurcracy.  The Special economic zone: first established in 1980. First there were 4 of them: Shenzhen, Shantou, Zhuhai, Xiamen (close tie with Taiwan, which were fast developed with the help of US)  The Special Economic Zone: From the mid 90s, many more areas were open for foreign investment.  The Special Economic Zone was associated with Neo-liberalism—they are also known as free trade zones, or industrial states, etc. Their goal was direct foreign investment. foreign investors were having no responsibilities to provide  Production in the zones were export orientated. Market forces drive economic activities. Their function was to open a way for global capital to China in way that Chinese gov’t thought they could manage.  China wants to attract foreign capital, and what they have to offer is the cheap, abundant, well-educated labour force. Once it shown that these areas do work, a lot of other places decide to do the same.  At the same time, the rural sector of economy is also profoundly re- organized. Family responsibility system  One of the basic reforms introduced in early 1980s, was the separation of polit
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