1973-1975—―second phase‖ of the cultural revolution
one of the major issues in the 1 phase of CR was the identification of
people in position of authority within the party who are taking the
capitalist road—the major target of the CR 1 phase
2of the people who were specially targeted were Liu Shaoqi and Deng
Xiaoping. Liu has been a party member in 1925, but in the cultural
revolution, he was accused as taking the capitalist road
Deng has been in the party since 1924, he was known as the number 2
party person to be persecuted. He was striped off all the party titles.
After 1969, CR was basically over, although many of the people who
participated were still in power.
In the early 20 thcentury, many people figured out that China’s situation
in global scaled changed dramatically, Confucianism is no longer useful to
provide answers to the questions of China, represented by the May Fourth
Confucianism was the name for everything holding China back from
making the transition. It was also the symbol of all the bad Chinese
remnants of the past that left in Chinese present
Lin Biao: 1965 organized the circulation of the littler red book
During the CR, the little book became the necessity for everyone
In 1966, by 1970 the whole Mao thing had gone a little weird, maybe we
don’t need this religious belief for Mao, so Lin Biao became a little bit
unflavored by the top leaders of the party.
Lin Biao died in 1971.
Following, there was an extensive purge in the party who followed Lin.
How did Confucianism and Lin were combined together?
In 1973, a scholarly movement emerged in China around the problem of
studying Chinese history—how you should understand the past became
an issue. One of the charges Lin made against Mao was that he compared
Mao with Qin Shihuang, and as a tyrant.
Confucius was usually referred to in this movement as Kong Laoer—the
implicit Laoda was referred to Lin Biao
One-China policy How did Deng take power?
5 super super elites in the Party: Mao Zede, Zhou Enlai, Zhude, Liu
After Mao died, Hua Guofeng became the chairman. Chen Yun made Deng
Xiaoping rehabilitated, and restored his position in the party.
Deng and Chenyun both advocated the free marketing, so being attacked
as the people who take the capitalist road.
One of Chenyun’s most close associate was Sun Muqiao.
In July, 1979 Chen yun became the head of the –he is re-orienting the
party from away emphasize on party relations to a single goal—economic
achievements. Under the 4 modernizations.
Here, science and technology are given a privilege place in the
development of China. The goal of the party became economic growth of
all other things. Macro level planning is turned over to trained discipline
The Special economic zone: first established in 1980. First there were 4 of
them: Shenzhen, Shantou, Zhuhai, Xiamen (close tie with Taiwan, which
were fast developed with the help of US)
The Special Economic Zone: From the mid 90s, many more areas were
open for foreign investment.
The Special Economic Zone was associated with Neo-liberalism—they are
also known as free trade zones, or industrial states, etc. Their goal was
direct foreign investment. foreign investors were having no
responsibilities to provide
Production in the zones were export orientated. Market forces drive
economic activities. Their function was to open a way for global capital to
China in way that Chinese gov’t thought they could manage.
China wants to attract foreign capital, and what they have to offer is the
cheap, abundant, well-educated labour force. Once it shown that these
areas do work, a lot of other places decide to do the same.
At the same time, the rural sector of economy is also profoundly re-
Family responsibility system
One of the basic reforms introduced in early 1980s, was the separation of