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The People's Republic I.docx

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Paul Thompson

1. The post-Taiping Rebellion situation 2. The Self-Strengthening Movement (c. 1865–1895) 3. The Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) and the “Hundred-Days Reform” (1898) 4. The background, development, and consequences of the Boxer Uprising (1900) 5. The New Policies of 1902 and their momentous importance 6. The emergence of a revolutionary alternative: Sun Yat-sen and the Revolutionary Alliance 7. The Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911 Developmental and administrative tendency vs. revolutionary tendency  CCP saw their jobs as revolutionizing Chinese society. While the key word for GMD is development, the key word for CCP is revolution.  After 1949, both of the tendencies got interacted. Their diff between developmental and administrative tendency vs. revolutionary tendency  After 1949, the CCP found having making a transition from a war machine into a gov’t—how did they do it? They did it mainly in Marx’s theory of state. Marx argued that the state is an instrument of class rule, the domination of one class over the other class.  All socialists and Marxists would agree that the bourgeois class is to rule over the working class.  From one tendency—let’s call it the Deng Xiaoping tendency—the state is an instrument for ministering society according to rational plan for development. The argument is that now the party represents the people and state, and we can now use the state as what it is intend to be, which is an instrument for development.  Another tendency—let’s call it the Mao Zedong tendency—the state remains as a weapon by which one class oppresses the other class  The imperial state is an instrument for the gentry to rule over the peasants, the republican state is an instrument for the rule of the landlords, bourgeoisies, and militarists to rule over the peasants and workers. The socialists state is an instrument for the rule of the peasants and workers over the class they had just defeated.  By seizing control of the state, have we won the revolution?  For the 1 tendency, Yes. We now control the state, and we can get on to run successful society and economy.  For the 2 nd tendency, No. The seize of the state is only a part of the revolution, not the end.  The question is does the state seems to be an instrument of class rule once the state has been conquered?  Another related problem relating to the two tendencies is their idea of the role of the people in relation to the socialist state.  1 tendency: it is now people’s jobs to return to their lives and work according to the state’s plan for development  2 ndtendency: people have to be constantly involve in the revolutionizing of their own lives, because otherwise, Mao is fully aware of what happened in Soviet Union with the development of Stalinism. Mao is fully aware that bureaucratic process leads to the end of revolutionary activities, and he is afraid that this would happen in China.  This is the basic split within the CCP.  Mao and others are well aware that have launched many projects that they were not very well prepared.  In 1948,  They are using the people as a political determination, you are not Chinese ethnically, but because you belong to the class that are being oppressed by the feudalists and imperialists. If you are not of the people—old GMD military, landowners, bankers, etc. then you are against the state.  In the essay “democratic dictatorship”, Mao said the following—we must be ready to do what are not familiar , which means there will be difficulty and mistakes.  First thing they have to do is to stay close control of the city. The CCP wants to do two things—revolutionaries society and develop economy.  In the Land Reform project they work it perfectly.  First thing they want to do is to destroy the traditional prestige enjoyed by the landlord class. The CCP would go to the village and find out who are the poor peasants, and ask them to identify who the rich landlords are. They are given the poor peasants the chance to “revenge”—and this is called a “speak bitterness meeting”.  Second of all, they want to know just how much arable lands there are in China, for the purpose of developing production, and industrialization.  In the process of this, the full extent of the land holdings of the landowner families will be revealed by the local people.  The point is that nobody knew how much arable land there was. Because there was no gov’t who controlled almost the whole China before.  However, the less land that is registered, the less taxes they have to pay.  So the CCP came up with a strategy—the Land Reform Strategy was designed to redistribute the arable land once the large landowners were put to place. So previously, when the country came to calculate land for tax, it was for everybody’s interest to report as little as possible, now when the land will be distributed evenly, so people report more.  In the early 1940s, as the result of the land reform campaign, not only the gentry were destroyed. Peasants were given status.  Through all of this, the basic task for CCP is to establish a minimal level of basic functioning in a society that basically falls apart.  1949-1953 was the period of CCP to trying to get a sense of their tasks and how they are going to address the tasks.  By 1953, they figure they got a solid sense. Some kind of stability is achieved, and CCP is to launch its first five-year-plan. A structured program for the accomplishment of d
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