1. The post-Taiping Rebellion situation
2. The Self-Strengthening Movement (c. 1865–1895)
3. The Sino-Japanese War (1894–95) and the “Hundred-Days
4. The background, development, and consequences of the Boxer
5. The New Policies of 1902 and their momentous importance
6. The emergence of a revolutionary alternative: Sun Yat-sen and the
7. The Wuchang Uprising of October 10, 1911
Developmental and administrative tendency vs. revolutionary tendency
CCP saw their jobs as revolutionizing Chinese society. While the key word
for GMD is development, the key word for CCP is revolution.
After 1949, both of the tendencies got interacted. Their diff between
developmental and administrative tendency vs. revolutionary tendency
After 1949, the CCP found having making a transition from a war machine
into a gov’t—how did they do it? They did it mainly in Marx’s theory of
state. Marx argued that the state is an instrument of class rule, the
domination of one class over the other class.
All socialists and Marxists would agree that the bourgeois class is to rule
over the working class.
From one tendency—let’s call it the Deng Xiaoping tendency—the state is
an instrument for ministering society according to rational plan for
development. The argument is that now the party represents the people
and state, and we can now use the state as what it is intend to be, which
is an instrument for development.
Another tendency—let’s call it the Mao Zedong tendency—the state
remains as a weapon by which one class oppresses the other class
The imperial state is an instrument for the gentry to rule over the
peasants, the republican state is an instrument for the rule of the
landlords, bourgeoisies, and militarists to rule over the peasants and
workers. The socialists state is an instrument for the rule of the peasants
and workers over the class they had just defeated.
By seizing control of the state, have we won the revolution?
For the 1 tendency, Yes. We now control the state, and we can get on to
run successful society and economy. For the 2 nd tendency, No. The seize of the state is only a part of the
revolution, not the end.
The question is does the state seems to be an instrument of class rule
once the state has been conquered?
Another related problem relating to the two tendencies is their idea of the
role of the people in relation to the socialist state.
1 tendency: it is now people’s jobs to return to their lives and work
according to the state’s plan for development
2 ndtendency: people have to be constantly involve in the revolutionizing
of their own lives, because otherwise, Mao is fully aware of what
happened in Soviet Union with the development of Stalinism. Mao is fully
aware that bureaucratic process leads to the end of revolutionary
activities, and he is afraid that this would happen in China.
This is the basic split within the CCP.
Mao and others are well aware that have launched many projects that
they were not very well prepared.
They are using the people as a political determination, you are not
Chinese ethnically, but because you belong to the class that are being
oppressed by the feudalists and imperialists. If you are not of the
people—old GMD military, landowners, bankers, etc. then you are against
In the essay “democratic dictatorship”, Mao said the following—we must
be ready to do what are not familiar , which means there will be difficulty
First thing they have to do is to stay close control of the city. The CCP
wants to do two things—revolutionaries society and develop economy.
In the Land Reform project they work it perfectly.
First thing they want to do is to destroy the traditional prestige enjoyed
by the landlord class. The CCP would go to the village and find out who
are the poor peasants, and ask them to identify who the rich landlords
are. They are given the poor peasants the chance to “revenge”—and this
is called a “speak bitterness meeting”.
Second of all, they want to know just how much arable lands there are in
China, for the purpose of developing production, and industrialization. In the process of this, the full extent of the land holdings of the
landowner families will be revealed by the local people.
The point is that nobody knew how much arable land there was. Because
there was no gov’t who controlled almost the whole China before.
However, the less land that is registered, the less taxes they have to pay.
So the CCP came up with a strategy—the Land Reform Strategy was
designed to redistribute the arable land once the large landowners were
put to place. So previously, when the country came to calculate land for
tax, it was for everybody’s interest to report as little as possible, now
when the land will be distributed evenly, so people report more.
In the early 1940s, as the result of the land reform campaign, not only
the gentry were destroyed. Peasants were given status.
Through all of this, the basic task for CCP is to establish a minimal level
of basic functioning in a society that basically falls apart.
1949-1953 was the period of CCP to trying to get a sense of their tasks
and how they are going to address the tasks.
By 1953, they figure they got a solid sense. Some kind of stability is
achieved, and CCP is to launch its first five-year-plan. A structured
program for the accomplishment of d