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Transition to colonialism II: Patterns of Formal Annexation, Private Property Right and the Rule of Law

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University of Toronto St. George
Ritu Birla

October 22 2012 HIS282H1 Handout 9: Transition to Colonialism I & 2 Decline of the Subsidiary Alliance E. Decline of the Subsidiary Alliance and the Acceleration of Conquest, early 19 century Awadh: 1800, all western territories under British Arcot Mysore and Maratha territories: Tipu Sultan defeated 1799; Marathas defeated 1818 Rajput and Afghan States 1817 Hyderabad Punjab Sind Doctrine of laspse under Dalhousie The East India Company and Indigenous merchants had a link. The East India Company was built on alliances with Indian Traders and Englishmen. The British use their military power to back a ruling family that would help the East India Company interests. East India Company financed battles against local rulers in the South Extended to Hyderabad which becomes a princely state Awadh: 1800, all western territories under British Arcot Arcot: interesting case of the decline of the subsidiary alliance Awadh: decline of alliance British demand regular payment for army, local ruler puts pressure on revenue collectors, which puts pressure on peasants, pressure on ruler. British say they are going to annex their territory. Nawab of Awadh forced to give up all his territories Mysore and Maratha territories: Tipu Sultan defeated 1799; Marathas defeated 1818 Mysore and Maratha territories: greatest obstacle to company expansion. Military 115 000 to 150 000, one of the largest European standing army 1781-1784: Mysore fight British to stalemate 1799: economic expansion of the British, Mysore defeated by the son of Hyder Ali. Tipu Sultan: famous in folklore in Britain Maratha: had become an empire. Offer opportunity for British intervention Army sent to intimidate in 1802 1803: Delhi captured by EIC Rajput and Afghan States 1817 1817: British Army undo power of Rajput and Afghan States 1818: EIC defeat Maratha Hyderabad 1798: Hyderabad forced info Subsidiary Alliance British never formally annex the state. The reasons could be that, it was too expensive to administer and it was spacey populated. Model of informal control Hyderabad was known as a princely state. Local rulers stilled ruled, but tributaries to East India Company Residency system: British residence lives in the court and is responsible for conveying what is happening at the local level. Punjab Punjab: Under the authority of Ranjit Singh, Sikh military ruler 1790: established state Sikh state remains out of control until 1839, Ranjit Singh’s death. Then two Ango-Sikh wars follow. Sihk landed magnates, fishers within societies to who trade is important, with the alliance with them, a taking over of sindh Treaty of Amu Gulab Singh: ruler of Jamu (In Kashmir) Gulab Singh receives Kashmir. Issue of Kashmir begins here. It was a princely state. It was run by a Hindu king (lineage of Gulab singh) but a majority of the population is Muslim. As religious identities become politicized, it comes to be complex. Sind Sind: Comes into conflict, there is an emirate. Anglo-sind Conflict in 1830s, conquered in 1842 Peccavi (I have sinned) Under Dalhousie (look at list of go
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