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HIS311Y1 (68)

#2: Birth of A Dominion .pdf

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BIRTH OF A DOMINION CANADA AND THE WORLD, 1812-1867 INTRODUCTION • At this point Canadian foreign policy is influenced by the British and Americans They were antagonist even into the 20 century • • The threat of being annexed by the Americans was a very real threat that was opposed by Canadians • American Revolution was complex A MERICAN R EVOLUTION , 1775-83 • Reasons for rebellion • The colonists wanted autonomy and individual rule — the heart of the revolution • American invasions of Quebec, 1775-76 • Felt that Quebec was a great candidate for the Americans because they were natural allies of the American cause -- opposed to British tyranny • Many French Canadians were not keen to get involved on either hand — American or British • Americans were alien to them British had a bad history with Quebec • • Decided by the continental congress that it was necessary to attack and seize Quebec by force — it could be used as a base • Fall, 1775 — two separate American forces approached to try to seize Quebec • Montgomery and Benedict Arnold — Arnold was an American general who defected to the British • Dwindling force because of illness and desertion • Realized it was not going to be easy to take Quebec with so few troops • Had to make a decision by December 31 — after this point the men were free to go home So, they lead an assault — failed • • Waited for the Spring — the Royal Navy backed up Quebec • Turned the French-Canadian attitude against the Americans • Quebec and Nova Scotia’s response • Nova Scotia (Acadia) never rebelled — didn’t become the 14 colony • It was much more distant from America than was Quebec • It would have been difficult and costly to attack Nova Scotia because of the situation of the navy/fort • 1781 — Revolution succeeded! • Treaty of Paris, 1783 • Great Britain recognized the sovereignty of the USA with the Second Treaty of Paris • Confirmed the success of the US — included a wide swath of Quebec • Humiliating for the British • Consequence — acceptance of US by the British, exodus of loyalists BIRTH OF A DOMINION CANADA AND THE WORLD, 1812-1867 B RITISH N ORTH AMERICA , 1783-1812 THE LOYALIST INFLUX No longer welcome after the Treaty Paris • •Some of the loyalists stayed, some went to Britain, many went to Canada •50,000 loyalists arrived in Maritimes and in Quebec •The majority went to Nova Scotia •Created English colonies in the Maritimes •The remainder went to “western Quebec” (Ontario) •These people had to be resettled, they also had to be made to feel like they belong •This was a problem in Quebec with the pre-existing French-Canadian population •The British government made a fundamental decision — could have forced the English and French to exist under the same government or they could split them in to • Allow French Canada and nascent Canada to have their own colonies CONSTITUTIONAL A, 1791 •Divided Quebec into two parts — Lower and Upper Canada •They decided to split the colonies •Lower Canada (French) was to remain as it had been •Upper Canada (English) was to be modeled on a British society — English speaking, Anglican, people could own their own land •Both the Canadas got their own assembly •Lower Canada would have a Governor General •Upper Canada would have a Lieutenant General (LG) • The first LG was John Graves Simcoe — set about creating Upper Canada as a microcosm of Great Britain because he believed that British society was better than American society A certain snobbishness • • Encouraged immigration from the USA — believed that a true American could easily convert and become loyal subjects •Victory for diversity at the cost of unity — there was no sense of the Canadian LATELOYALISTS •Refers to people who came north and swore their oath •They did this only for the free land NOT because they were loyal to the British Crown R EASON FOR THE W AR OF 1812 •The great play of identities at the time •The fight for Canada? — the American intension was to capture Canada and bring it into the American Union •Anglo-American tensions •The war may have been for Canada, but the US fought Britain, not Canada BIRTH OF A DOMINION CANADA AND THE WORLD, 1812-1867 •The actual war stemmed from the lack of respect the British showed the Americans after their formation •The British refused to dismantle/leave their American forts •Impressments — British would “impress” Americans on American Vessals to join the Navy •The Chesapeake Affair, 1807 — deserters from the Royal Navy •Raising sentiment of bitterness toward the British by the Americans Manifest Destiny • •A feeling that existed in many American hearts •The belief that it was their God given right to expand the American borders all over the world, or at least north (Canada) •Was Canada an easy target? •Presumed that this would be no big deal •Upper Canada was attractive because it was inhabited by former Americans (Late Loyalists) ISAAC B ROOK •Served in British Army in Europe, West Indies •First Canadian hero — he was a symbol of the Canadian resistance to American annexation •Arrived in Canada in 1802 •Promoted to Major-General in 1811, responsible for defense of Upper Canada •He had a command-style, a fearlessness that attracted Canadians to him •Wasn’t fond of Upper Canada — the population was “bad” •Brook swaggered his way around Upper Canada TECUMSEH Shawnee Chief born near Springfield, Ohio • •With Brother, “The Prophet,” led aboriginal struggle for native confederacy in the mid- Western US •Longtime enemy of USA, feared by Americans because of his leadership skills and because he was native (he embodied the things settlers had feared) •Couldn’t dictate orders to your troops if you were Native — lead by example and persuasion •Formed an alliance with Brook’s Canada (British) 1812: A DVANTAGE AND U PPER C ANADA •Brook’s Strategy •Capture a distant fort •Brook took the fight to the Americans at Fort Detroit •General William Hull (American) crossed the River and entered the tip of Southern Ontario •Brook and Tecumseh had a numerically inferior force BIRTH OF A DOMINION CANADA AND THE WORLD, 1812-1867 •Harder to capture than to defend a fort •Bluff at Fort Detroit •Tecumseh sent his warriors into the forest screaming bloody murder — made the Americans believe that there were 1000s of
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