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HIS311Y1 (68)

Pierre Trudeau.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George

THE FOREIGN POLICY ENTHUSIASMS OF PIERRE TRUDEAU 1968-1984 INTRODUCTION •He was never really into foreign policy -- focused more on domestic politics •He was a relatively obscure Quebec representative •Trudeau got into politics to save Canada from Quebec separatism •Trudeau’s foreign policy was concerned with Canada first -- it was a realistic policy as opposed to Pearson’s idealistic policy T HE Q UEBEC S OVEREIGNTY M OVEMENT •Renee Levesque was the premier of Quebec who promoted peaceful secession from Canada •He became a cabinet minsters in the early 1960s •Eventually left the liberal party and formed the Parti Quebecois •Sovereignty association is the idea that Quebec will always be peaceful toward Canada G RAPPLING WITH THETHREAT OF QUEBEC S EPARATISM •Pearson did not know how to handle the Quebec situation -- never understood why they would want to leave •Quebec’s economy was economically backward, most businesses were held by English-Canadians and Americans •Not a lot of French-Canadian representation in the federal government •Pearson tried to help the Quebec -- couldn’t speak French well •Called the royal commission on bilingualism -- indicated that the problem was not language, but that Canada that many canadians didn’t identify with the two nations in Canada •Pearson chose the flag as something to change -- the previous flags only reflected Canada’s British history •The flag that was chosen was very controversial because many believed their culture and history under the previous flat would be thrown away -- this was a means of making the French feel more comfortable •The Canadian flag first flew in 1965 •Another step that Pearson took was to bring in 3 new politicians that could represent Quebec -- Jean Marchand, Gerard Pelletier, and Pierre Trudeau FRENCH T ROUBLE M AKING, 1964-1967 •Pearson proved to be unable to contain Quebec separatism •Quebec separatism was also backed by French President Charles de Gaulle •Promoted the French commonwealth -- felt that just Canada was part of this French Commonwealth •Relations with Pearson were cordial -- went to France on an official visit ▯ THE FOREIGN POLICY ENTHUSIASMS OF PIERRE TRUDEAU 1968-1984 •Jean Lessange was also invited -- he was treated the exact same as the Prime Minster •Tried to elevate the status of France •1966 -- Canada changed the sale of uranium as a means of ensuring that uranium would not be used for bad •1966 -- De Gaulle pulled France out of NATO -- meant that Canadians troops were no longer welcome there •When De Gaulle came to Canada he did not follow protocol -- went to Montreal, instead of Ottawa first •He said that the crowds in Quebec reminded him of France before it was liberated from Nazi Germany •He gave a speech: “Vive le Quebec libre” •Pearson announced that de Gaulle’s comments were inappropriate -- Canadians do not need to be freed, they are already free P IERRE ELIOT T RUDEAU •Was the best man to deal with the Quebec situation Relative to the other prominent leaders at the time, he was relatively young when he • became prime minster •He was a very unusual person -- he was independently wealthy, traveled around the world •He regarded himself as a “citizen of the world” -- believed that nationalism was underlaid by ethnicity •His view was that rather being inspired by emotions, people should conduct themselves reasonably •Possessed the toughness to settle the Quebec issue •Trudeau was a good representative of the age -- “Trudeau” set in at the campaign of 1968 Preserved by many progressives as being one of them • TRUDEAU ’S“J UST SOCIETY ” •He was voted in with a majority, even in the west •The reason he did so well was because he ran against weak opponents Trudeau’s view was that all members of nations should be bond by common laws • and common individual rights -- did not believe in ethnic nationalism •This was an attempt to prevent an concession to Quebec •Everyone had to be treated the same •Promoted inclusive immigration and social polices •What really mattered were the laws of the land and individual rights •1969 -- Trudeau’s government passed the Official Languages Act that could enable you to speak either French or English to the Federal government all over Canada ▯ THE FOREIGN POLICY ENTHUSIASMS OF PIERRE TRUDEAU 1968-1984 •This is why there is bilingual packaging •The point was to enshrine that the country had two different language and make Quebecers feel at home outside of Quebec •Also promoted multiculturalism in 1971 -- even though there were two different language, Canada was not bicultural, it was multicultural T HE C OLD W AR, 1968-1984 •1968 --the Soviet Union crushed the Prague Spring •The 1970s was an era of detente (an easing of tensions) •1972 -- Soviet Union and the United Stated signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT I) •A suggestion that both sides were introducing the tensions of the Cold War •Helsinki Accord -- Soviets agreed to a degree of openness and democracy in exchange for the west recognizing Soviet Bloc borders in Europe •Emphasis placed on mutual cooperation •Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (leaves in 1989!) T RUDEAU S F OREIGN POLICY : FIRST S TEPS AND M ISSTEPS •Trudeau was not a believer in the school of helpful fixing •Wouldn’t support the most basic Canadian commitments •His vision was smaller and more selfish -- Canada should not be all things to all people, but should focus on itself •Pearson was disappointed •Trudeau eventually came around to Pearson’s point of view -- to try to be a helpful fixer •Canada was much less influential in the 1980s than it had in the 1960s •Trudeau kept his own council -- his Chief Advisor, Ivan Head, and Secretary of State, Mitchell Sharp •Trudeau’s government didn’t felt off well on the topic of foreign affairs •Civil war in Nigeria -- didn’t want to support Nigeria because he wasn’t supporting the Quebec issue •1970 -- released a 6 volume edition of Foreign Policy for Canadians •He wanted people to feel engaged •Didn’t cover the United States -- fed into the impression that Trudeau was anti- American Many believed he was a pinko-communist • RECOGNITION OF CHINA, 1968-1970 •Was given one of the five permanent sets in the United Nations -- assumed that China would become a great world power ▯ THE FOREIGN POLICY ENTHUSIASMS OF PIERRE TRUDEAU 1968-1984 • Flying in the face of reality -- didn’t make a lot of sense that a small rump administration (the nationalist government in Taiwan) was voicing all of China How to recognize China? The communist government didn’t want to recognized • unless it recognized it’s definition -- which was the whole of China • Sought to recognize that the communist ran mainland China and the nationalist at Taiwan • The chines position is that the communist government of china extends to Taiwan -- Canadian government took note of China’s recognition • Better to trade with these countries rather than shun the country FLQ C RISIS, OCTOBER 1970 • Sparked by a small radical separatist group -- the Front de Liberation de Quebec • Kidnapped James Cross and Pierre Laporte • Had a list of demands • The Trudeau government was left with how to deal with these demands • Put troops on the streets to protect important building and citizens -- “Just Watch Me” Refused to negotiate with the FLQ -- enacted the War Measures Act • • Put Canada at war with the FLQ -- the police were able to seize anybody they thought was affiliated with the FLQ • In the end, Laporte was murdered by the FLQ • Understood as the correct response to the crisis • Many Quebecers were in support of the FLQ “S LEEPING WITH THE E LEPHANT ,” 1969-1970 • Americans didn’t really like the Trudeau • He didn’t agree with American tactics in the Cold War • Nixon and Trudeau still had a cordial relationship • Trudeau’s visit to Washington in 1969 -- Nixon wanted Trudeau’s support for a number things • Trudeau didn’t like the idea of nuclear weapons, but he let it slide -- he wasn’t going to change Nixon’s mind, so there was no way arguing • Nixon ordered against the reduction of Canadian NATO forces -- if something were to happen, the United States would have to pick up the slack • The Manhattan incident -- Canada expanded by 8% • The humble oil company had to pass through the Northwest passage to the Prudhoe Bay • To test the economic viability of transporting oil in ice • The Canadian position was that the Northwest passage was Canadian, but Americans felt it was international because it was too far from Canada’s mainland • The United States passed through the passage without asking for permission ▯ THE FOREIGN POLICY ENTHUSIASMS OF PIERRE TRUDEAU 1968-1984 •Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act -- Canada grew! •The shore between islands was expanded so that there couldn’t be any International waters •Canada got the support of the Soviet Union -- the US gave up TRUDEAU AND V IETNAM , 1968-1973 •Refuse American request to send American police into Canada to pursue Draft Dodgers •January 1973 -- Trudeau finally condemned the war, mainly because of the heavy bombing •Soon after Nixon realized that the war was never going to be won •It was a humiliating retreat for the Americans •Canada was recruited into the International Commission of Control and Supervision in 1973 -- this was an opportunity for the Canadians to help the Americans •Very low time in American history •His realistic policy is evident in the 1960s -- didn’t agree with Nixon on ma
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