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HIS311: sept 17 1600-1700

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Bothwell

September 17, 2013 Key Words Notes  1600-1700: demographics: - Europe - North America - Disease  The period 1600 and 1700 is once which European settlements take route along the North American Atlantic seaboard and in which European colonies are permanently established. Beginning of the period, north of Florida and Mexico there are no permanent European settlements. The native nations of North America, north Mexico were essentially undistributed. Although there was trading activity that took place along the coast, Newfoundland and what are now the Maritime Provinces. Many of the native nations had some European contact.  Of course in the south from the Spanish colonies there was a huge technological importation, which was the horse. - The horse, although was a domesticated animal was brought to the America’s as a domestic animal. However many horses escaped and moved up the plains and so the native cultures of middle north American (great plains) begin to feature horsepower. - That is an obvious example of European impact, but one doesn’t happen at the particular time of the actual presence of Europeans.  Europeans had some sense of colonies and colonization. The colonization of the America was similar from one European country to another. It is based essentially on the colonization of Eastern Europe. That is the movement of settled Christian kingdoms in the tribal areas in the Slavic land or around the Balkans.  There was a sense of colonization, which involved a imposition of economic system the imposition of a uniform religion. - Early colonization, in European experience involved both of those things: economic exploitation, or the establishment of economically viable entities, - and either convergence to the catholic religion or extermination.  The Spanish had been engaged in a 700 years war with the th Muslims in the south of Spain. The Muslims had invaded in the 8 century and the Spanish gradually drove them back. This was not a period of perpetual war, but it was a fairly constant phenomena. The idea of a frontier that defines not only political jurisdiction but also religious and ideological cultural difference is familiar. th  In the 15 century the Spanish ventured into the Atlantic Ocean, before Columbus and discovered the Canary islands. The Canary Islands are a very direct prototype of what the Spanish would do in the new world. The inhabitants of the Canary Islands, none of them survived. Probably if we look at various molecules of the current population we might find some traces, but essentially the population of the canary Islands vanished. Similar policy is taken in West Indies. It isn’t as part north and in some respects it spreads to the main land. When you get to Mexico and south American, the native inhabits are too many to be exterminated and therefore are converted and to some extent deprived of their culture and language. And we know that the many populations in Latin American that maintain to some extent their original language and original culture.  The European model used by the Spanish the 16 century is pretty drastic, but it is accompanied by something the Europeans did not count on. It had to do with the early success of the European success of the colonization. This was disease. The Europeans brought disease. Of course they were native disease back home, however they were the most deadly disease they brought was small pox. It is estimated, that at a very minimum 50% of the population of the Americas died. That is the population in 1700 was less than 50% than that had been in the 1500. Disease not only depopulates, but also disturbs. - If you got a new disease that will have drastic implications, and one knows what to do, the effect is chaotic. - Another is that renders populations vulnerable to domination and to conquest. The single most important factor in what happens in the Americas after the initial discovery is simply depopulation.  In this area northern North America and central north America, around the great lakes, st. Lawrence, New England, the number of natives just collapses. - In some cases whole villages and tribes disappear. Either totally, killed off by disease, - or so dismantled that they are absorbed into neighboring populations.  When the Europeans established themselves o the coast, the European impact proceeded much further than the actual settlement.  If you look at the great lake area in particular the most important nation is the Iroquoian nation, which is of Iroquoian people related to the 5 nations, the Iroquian who lived south of the great lakes. The Huron’s in this period essentially disintegrate, they do not disappear. There are Huron’s today. But as a confederacy and a political entity, as an organized society they collapse. In that collapse really it is small pox that did the damage.  The European when they push at the door of North America, they are pushing at an open door. European cultural impact goes in fact simple desemation. The European have a strong incentive to bring their true revealed religion (Christianity) to the native people. Automatic assumption that the European must be the better one.  So disease is accompanied by religion convergence  By the early 18 century, early 1700’s the majority of the Iroquoian people would have converted to one form or another of Christianity.  It was assumed very early in colonization that if religious convergence occurred, that in some way the converted could be absorbed and live as equals with the Europeans settlement that arrived. But that did not happen. There were some who tried to make it happen on both sides, on the natives and Europeans, but overall it was a policy that failed.  The state of Europe in the 17 century.  The richest and powerful country is France. It has the largest population in Europe and that includes Russia. French population in 1770 was greater than Russia’s.  Thanks to the outcome of the religious wars in France, which end in 1598, the French monarchy established a centralized and efficient state. That takes time, and the king of France does not have infinite resources. That means that if the French monarchy isn’t distracted it can have an impact in North America. Furthermore, if you are looking at the balance of Europe in 1600- 1650 you would conclude that the French would the dominate power in north America.  England is a maritime country that is surrounded by water, except on one side where there is Scotland. And so England has an impact on Canada. - But England in the early 17 century is poor. - It is under populated and has a 1/5 or less population of France. - It exists in a state of civil distribution. Kings and pariliment are forever disagreeing. a. In the 1640’s there is a civil war. The king of England tries to assert certain constitutional doctritine which would make allow him freedom to tax people, imposed policies they had not okayed, and so on and so forth. b. This civil war takes place between 1642-1649. At the end of it Charles I has his head cut off. - It does set a precedent to English consitioinal history. England had a republic. Lasted from 1649 to 1660. Then the english decided that they were not good republicans anymore, and called back the son of Charles I, Charles II. The English reasoned correctly that Charles II would look at his father, and try not to imitate his path to the execution block.  England in this period, down to the 1670, 1680 is relatively badly governed. It is quarrelsome, there are outbreaks and rebellion and there is always the threat of civil war hanging over it. Europeans usually looked at England as a bad example  Then there is Spain. - It had only been unified as the late 15 century, early 16 th century. - Had a complicated constitution. Spain, for a variety of reasons, and definitely for the lack of polical coherence and economic mismanagement is notthn expanding power after the beginning of the 17 century. In Europe in this period in the 17-18 century spain is looked at as a declining power. - Nevertheless the Spanish still had their empire in latin America and for that reason alone we would have to pay attention to spain and the Spanish empire at least until the beginning of the 19 century. It is a strategic factor in how North America is developing.  Then north of England is Scotland. - It has 1/10 the population of England. - If the English are quarrelsome the Scots take it to new heights. They admire the idea of getting rid of their monarch and the are distrusted by religious wars and so on. - The Scots are also a colonizing power. And what they colonized along with the English was the third kingdom of British isles- that was Ireland. a. Ireland is kind of a English possession. The English have not quite dominated it, but pretended that they owned it from the 12 century forward. th b. In the 16 century, for accidental reasons, Ireland did not follow England and Scotland into Protestantism, it was very largely catholic. As a result the European intuition of religion war was imported into Ireland. Ireland was in a state of continues war-like disruption. What interest us that Ireland is a colony. And
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