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HIS311 Oct 22 Tariffs, Trade, Investment, Immigration and Emigration, 1867-1914

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Robert Bothwell

October 22, 2013 Key Words Notes  Canada is created in 1870. By an act from the British parliament, which is called the British North America act 1867. You always have to put the date after the BNA acts because there are about 10 of them. It is still the constitution of Canada. Except now we have relabeled it as a the constitution act of 1982. - So the BNA act created federal country, and the prof doesn’t think that they were really using the word country after 1867. - In terms of its status it is known as a colony of Great Britain, however Canadians over the next 10-20 years became aware of the fact that what they lived in was something particular to them. - In other words Canadians were creating an intensity for themselves. by the 1880s most people living in the territory of Canada would have accepted the term ‘Canadian’ to describe them. They also accepted the term British. No doubt every Canadian would have been either born in Canada or naturalized in Canada was a British subject. You can say that in some respects that it was a dual identity. - When the prof says that he has in the back of his mind an idea about Quebec. a. in Quebec there is no doubt the inhabitants call themselves ?? b. it didn’t mean the same thing as Canadian. Not necessarily. They tended to think of themselves as real Canadian, and the English speaks as the outsiders. c. so the simple fact of canadia is deceptive. And the prof is not sure if there is such thing as common national feeling among French-speaking Canadia in that area, certainly after this point.  the 1867 arrangement creates Quebec.. - Quebec for the first time since 1840 is a majority French speaking province. There is no doubt that everyone would expected that Quebec would be run as such. - However about 20% of the population of Quebec was English speaking. While there is a fair amount of intermingling among English speaks and French speakers there is also in some areas a kind of de facto segregation. - The segregation is based on linguist confines and religious confines. a. the English Protestants of Quebec have a fair amount of attitude of a kind. Since some elements of their community have a lot of money and economic power they have in some ways a kind of autonomy of their own. b. . -  Canada in 1867 is created in 1867 is theoretically a bilingual country. in fact few English-speaking politicians spoke French. The language of the admin federally was English. Although there were French-Canadians in the civil service they would be expected to speak English. So what is created is English speaking federal country with certain concessions towards French Canadians.  The provinces and the federal government had the same sort of setup. - Canada, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia had bi-chamberal Legislatures, which is two chambers. They still have that on the federal level today. - Gradually the provinces got rid of their second chambers. Which makes provinces unique in federal system. For example in the United State there is only one state that is uni-chamberal-that does not have a second chamber - In the 1860s the idea was universal that you would have a popularly elected lower house and a somewhat more restricted upper house.  To make it all work they resorted to something that is not in the constitution. And that is political parties: - political parties have existed in the English speaking countries since the 1780-1790s. and they have always been political views that go before that. - in the British Empire, by the 1860s it had effectively become a two party system. The two parties were conservative and liberals. It is important to note that they were in existence by 1860s. - The genius of Canada’s first prime minster John A. Macdonald was to create a federal conservative party out of the separate political factions of the 4 provinces. - Certainly Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had very different politics than did Ontario or Quebec. - By the 1870 we do have a functioning two party system in Canada. That mirrors the two party system in the US, which consists of the Democrats and Republicans. Also the two party system in Great Britain, which consisted of Liberal and conservatives. - the ideological linkages of the Canadian parties are to Great Britain. There are resembles in terms of issues to American parties, however Canadian liberal or conservatives felt an affinity towards the conservatives of Great Britain or liberals of great Britain. a. at least down to the 1900s Canadian politicians would probably have thought that the leader of their respective party in Great Britain was in some sense a kind of political overseer-er for their political party in Canada.  What is a party? - People who share a similar point of view? No. is it a bunch of people of the same ethnicity? Possibly. However, you need more than one ethnicity to be successful. Could it be geography? Could it be religions? (bang on. It is a great predictor in terms of party allegiance in terms of 1860s-1870s. - However the easiest thing to bear in mind is that the Canadian parties are …? They gather as many people as they can, which means that a single party will contain people of very different point of views and origins and policies, and backgrounds. - The whole point is to bring them together to form some sort of coalition, which is internal to it. - We think of coalitions as between discreet parties, however an ..? party will have a coalition inside itself. - That means that the job of the party leader is to manage the people. They are all held together by the hope of achieving office and winning an election. - And in order to do that you start making compromises and sometimes after you make compromises long enough you forget about your original principals, which is one of the dangers of a party. The danger always returning to original principals or fundamental concepts. When that happens parties can start breaking apart.  By this point we did not really have a government that was autonomous. The British interference in the confederation in the 1850s shows that Canadian party politics were still subject to considerable and decisive pressures from London.  From 1867 and on we can start talking about Canadian political leaders in their own way, and not just reflected as some kind of oversee-ed influenced.  Sir John A. Macdonald. He died in 1891. He was born in Glasgow. His parents immigrated to Canada. He grew up in Upper Canada and became a lawyer and gravitated towards the Tory or conservative side of the Upper Canada. - From the 1840s and on he is professional politician. There are a very few periods in which he is not principally engaged in politics. - His great political skill was that he was able to see many sides of an issues, which made his a born organizers and a born compromiser. - On the basic issue of Canadian politics, which was English- French politic Macdonald was usually broadminded for an English Canadian. He is on record on saying that English Canadian should get over that there are French Canadian speakers, and try the best they can to accommodate them and treat them with dignity. A proper treatment was essential to keeping the peace in Canada. - MacDonald was prepared to take people from many directions and manage them remarkably. - He had certain personal characteristics. a. he had very unhappy family life. first marriage was unhappy. Second marriage was somewhat better. However, again, his family was mixed. One of his children was handicap and remained a concern all his life. there is always an element of personal concern in Macdonald. b. He was rigouis. c. He drank a lot. He is well known to have gone on bingines. That means that there is a whole theme of Canadian political literature that deals with MacDonald’s drinking. Sometimes it could be a problem in terms of problem, because he did tend to drink when he got depressed. He got depressed over political things. and drinking made him go worse politically. On one occasion drinking made him lose office. There is that kind of Macdonald aspect. - s  conservative party. Everybody, liberal or conservative, would have believed in the basic economic system of Canada. There are few theoretical socialist around this period, however they have no political significant. Everybody, by today’s definition was a liberal capitalist. They would believed in the market, but they would think that there was an invisible hand that guided economic events in progressive way.  Progressive is the next part of it. Virtually every Canadian politician in 1860s and 1870s would have believed in progress. Progress was beneficial and had made Canadian better off before. This was illustrated in the inventions (steam boats and rail way systems) life had improved. The tone of both parties in the Canadian optical system is progressive.  Macdonald well understood that political parties and leaders reflect the balance of societies that f
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