HIS312 LECTURE FEB 5TH 2/5/2013 1:06:00 PM
Colonizing the west coast
Exploration and fur trade
Hudson’s bay co. and colonial beginning 1849
Gold rushes, 1858, 1600
A homosocial culture
Making British Columbia British
Test: approaches in looking
Different from elsewhere, not until 1850s, efforts to attract to immigrants,
timing are later. Aboriginal population there are larger and denser compared
to other part of the countries.
Known for its rich resources—reason for aboriginal living there. Also impact
on immigration patterns. Gold and gold rushes brought large number of new
comers into B.C. all of a sudden.
-overwhelming male. People who were concerned about the future were
troubled by aboriginals. Unusual and not what they expected.
Dismal failure for the first group of immigrant who came. Disease spread
fast. At least 100 thousands living on the coast. 19 century, 27 thousands.
Exploration and the fur trade
Russians spansh, british james cook
Pacific trade, overland trade
Fur trade of two direction, 1, cross the pacific, interested in sea foster.
Mostly in china, 2. Across the rocky mountain related to Hudson’s bay
Bay company crucial to the colony.
Establishing the colony of Vancouver island
1849 HBC, economic diversification
negotiated with British authority, to govern Vancouver island. Beginning
1849. Concerned about its future of their fur trade future. Thinking about
diversification. Exploiting other resources. The chief officer in 1849 became the governor of the colony of Vancouver island. Ruled the island under
-coal mining at Nanaimo:
foster coal mining, east coast up to midway. Large coal deposit. Begin trying
to exploit them getting Scotland immigrant to discover.(coal miners).. local
aboriginal population and other immigrant were recruited to work on coal
wealthy Britain who were familiar with agriculture would buy land from HBC.
Hire large number of labors to work farms. Did bring labor from Britain but
the trouble was the labor did not stay. California gold rush in the same year.
Labor disappeared to gold rush.
BC gold rushes, 1858-1860
Gold opposite Vancouver island
-discovered in rocky mountain, mainland area.
30000 newcomers in 1858 to the region seeking golds and economic
-diversity: arrived from CALI. 15 dollars for a ticket. Some of the gold fields
played out in California. Then came to Vancouver island
-white, Europeans, german, Italians, jews, chinese. More diversity than
elsewhere at that time.
-sprawling settlements far up country
-governor douglas takes control: concerned. 1858, manage to get a new
colony. Called B.C. established by the British to gain control.
-1858 colony of B.C.: 2 colonies. B.C. and Vancouver island. United as one
in 1866, B.C. joined the confederation in 1871 in Canada as a province.
-victoria as commercial hub
for gold mining industry. Require anyone who come for gold in B.C. had to
get a license from government from Victoria. Where sold foods and tickets.
No where near.
The mining frontier
-the trek up country
set up steam boat service everywhere they could.
-poor men’s camps gold was near the surface. Easily mined. Didn’t need lots of capital for
equipment to dig. Get there very cheap and get the gold cheap. Lots of
people hope they could make a fortune. Some did make a fortune in the
camp. But not everyone worked out that way. The people who seem to make
the best money was selling services to the gold diggers.
From the start, B.C. wanted different from the states. Court started up,
policing in mining area. But government could not control all of the anger.
Colonial british Columbia 1849-1871
Unsual social relation developed
-small white population
-males predominate overwhelmingly, virtually everyone who came was
male. 95% of the population was male. There were prostitute.
-growing Asian population: Chinese moving into the area. Looking to
provide commercial services whereas they could
-anxieties racial and gender.
Concern of the time, people mingle with the local and natives.
Did not want to spend lots of money.
-informal, grab-bag households of men
-men tend to form household with other e
share=be supportive of one another.
advice to miners.
Mutual dependence was recognized. People were interested in the news.
Newspaper sold out fast.
Lot of fighting on the frontier. Gambling, fought to establish.
White men and aboriginal women
Vitoria 1871, 10% of households. Taking up aboriginal women.
Interracial marriage. Right to the top
Governor douglas and Amelia comely douglas. Right at the top of society. The social hierarchy
dancehalls: hurdy-gurdy girls
-violence against women
these women were prostitutes, selling sexual services to maintain their
traditional culture. Set up dance halls on the frontier. Needed women all of
them were aboriginal. Women performers who entertained the men. They
danced with the men. Men would pay for the dance. Social contact.
Aboriginal try to represent themselves as rich. And wearing silk to appeal to
them. –hurdy-hurdy girl. Strict rule on dancing. Men had to show respect.
Lots of violence against women. General attitude was that they were
-disease: people were worried the contact between the newcomers would
-miscegenation: mingling would take down the standard of white.
-exclusion: send them out of town
-vested interests: conflict about what aboriginal women
addressing the issues
social reform movement
-sons of temperance, 1859
Mechanics institutes and adult education. For self-improvement.
Christina missionaries: civilize the newcomers and young people.
White, female immigration
-towards an ideal
-assist migration schemes
- an imperial project
-Anglican upper class women’s activism in London -working class servants and wives
subsidized for working class women.
-1860s, bride ship