Class Notes (839,150)
Canada (511,218)
History (3,264)
HIS312H1 (86)


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Ian Radforth

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HIS312 LECTURE FEB 5TH 2/5/2013 1:06:00 PM Colonizing the west coast Exploration and fur trade Hudson’s bay co. and colonial beginning 1849 Gold rushes, 1858, 1600 A homosocial culture Inter-racial sexuality Cleaning up Making British Columbia British Test: approaches in looking Different from elsewhere, not until 1850s, efforts to attract to immigrants, timing are later. Aboriginal population there are larger and denser compared to other part of the countries. Known for its rich resources—reason for aboriginal living there. Also impact on immigration patterns. Gold and gold rushes brought large number of new comers into B.C. all of a sudden. -overwhelming male. People who were concerned about the future were troubled by aboriginals. Unusual and not what they expected. Dismal failure for the first group of immigrant who came. Disease spread th fast. At least 100 thousands living on the coast. 19 century, 27 thousands. Exploration and the fur trade Russians spansh, british james cook Pacific trade, overland trade Fur trade of two direction, 1, cross the pacific, interested in sea foster. Mostly in china, 2. Across the rocky mountain related to Hudson’s bay company. Bay company crucial to the colony. Establishing the colony of Vancouver island 1849 HBC, economic diversification negotiated with British authority, to govern Vancouver island. Beginning 1849. Concerned about its future of their fur trade future. Thinking about diversification. Exploiting other resources. The chief officer in 1849 became the governor of the colony of Vancouver island. Ruled the island under British authority. -coal mining at Nanaimo: foster coal mining, east coast up to midway. Large coal deposit. Begin trying to exploit them getting Scotland immigrant to discover.(coal miners).. local aboriginal population and other immigrant were recruited to work on coal mining. -agriculture: wealthy Britain who were familiar with agriculture would buy land from HBC. Hire large number of labors to work farms. Did bring labor from Britain but the trouble was the labor did not stay. California gold rush in the same year. Labor disappeared to gold rush. BC gold rushes, 1858-1860 Gold opposite Vancouver island -discovered in rocky mountain, mainland area. 30000 newcomers in 1858 to the region seeking golds and economic opportunities -diversity: arrived from CALI. 15 dollars for a ticket. Some of the gold fields played out in California. Then came to Vancouver island -white, Europeans, german, Italians, jews, chinese. More diversity than elsewhere at that time. -sprawling settlements far up country -governor douglas takes control: concerned. 1858, manage to get a new colony. Called B.C. established by the British to gain control. -1858 colony of B.C.: 2 colonies. B.C. and Vancouver island. United as one in 1866, B.C. joined the confederation in 1871 in Canada as a province. -victoria as commercial hub for gold mining industry. Require anyone who come for gold in B.C. had to get a license from government from Victoria. Where sold foods and tickets. No where near. The mining frontier -the trek up country set up steam boat service everywhere they could. -poor men’s camps gold was near the surface. Easily mined. Didn’t need lots of capital for equipment to dig. Get there very cheap and get the gold cheap. Lots of people hope they could make a fortune. Some did make a fortune in the camp. But not everyone worked out that way. The people who seem to make the best money was selling services to the gold diggers. From the start, B.C. wanted different from the states. Court started up, policing in mining area. But government could not control all of the anger. Colonial british Columbia 1849-1871 Unsual social relation developed -small white population -males predominate overwhelmingly, virtually everyone who came was male. 95% of the population was male. There were prostitute. -growing Asian population: Chinese moving into the area. Looking to provide commercial services whereas they could -anxieties racial and gender. Concern of the time, people mingle with the local and natives. Did not want to spend lots of money. Homosocial culture -households -informal, grab-bag households of men -snacks -men tend to form household with other e share=be supportive of one another. sharing chores advice to miners. Mutual dependence was recognized. People were interested in the news. Newspaper sold out fast. Lot of fighting on the frontier. Gambling, fought to establish. White men and aboriginal women Vitoria 1871, 10% of households. Taking up aboriginal women. Interracial marriage. Right to the top Governor douglas and Amelia comely douglas. Right at the top of society. The social hierarchy Casual sex -prostitution dancehalls: hurdy-gurdy girls -violence against women these women were prostitutes, selling sexual services to maintain their traditional culture. Set up dance halls on the frontier. Needed women all of them were aboriginal. Women performers who entertained the men. They danced with the men. Men would pay for the dance. Social contact. Aboriginal try to represent themselves as rich. And wearing silk to appeal to them. –hurdy-hurdy girl. Strict rule on dancing. Men had to show respect. Lots of violence against women. General attitude was that they were Indians. -only squaws public debate -disease: people were worried the contact between the newcomers would spread disease. -miscegenation: mingling would take down the standard of white. -exclusion: send them out of town -vested interests: conflict about what aboriginal women addressing the issues social reform movement -sons of temperance, 1859 -Ymca 1859 Mechanics institutes and adult education. For self-improvement. Christina missionaries: civilize the newcomers and young people. White, female immigration -towards an ideal -assist migration schemes - an imperial project -Anglican upper class women’s activism in London -working class servants and wives subsidized for working class women. -1860s, bride ship
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