His312 Jan29 1/29/2013 1:05:00 PM
The Irish 1815-1865
A large and influential immigration
Ireland: protestants and Catholics
Pre0famine immigration, 1815-1845
Potato famine, tremendous
2/3 protestant . 1/3 catholic
orange and green
famine immigration, 1846-1849
post-famine immigration, 1850-1865
A profound impact: setting patterns
English rule of Ireland from 1169
England planted Scottish Presbyterians in northern Ireland
-impositions of an Anglo-Irish (accedensc)elite. Huge state by the English.
Great conflict between the new people and the old. And the surrounding
-protestant-catholic conflict, late 1700s
-Ireland joins united kingdom, 1801
send MP to UK parliament, problem was English was not granted rights.
-Roman Catholics without political rights until 1820s. Finally English
Pre famine immigration:
Who? middling ranks, farmers, especially from North e4ast -from 1830, more agricultural laborers from all Ireland . farmers came from
1830, assisted by Canadian family member.
-remittances (sent money home) and pre-paid tickets (purchased by
Canada). By transatlantic travel
2/3 are protestant.
mainly protestant, though Catholic minority large(minority in immigrant who
came to Canada, but majority in Ireland) preferred U.S.
-feared decline in Ireland
-economic position, important changes going on. Workers found they did not
have jobs. Made the protestant angry.
-political, and social position
drawn to agricultural
-independent on family farms
-protestants and Catholics alike
-the ―agro-forest economy‖ of new Brunswick and the Ottawa valley:
farming and lumbering combines
(men went out to the woods, combination of working in the woods in the
winter and wanting to own a farm)
-daughter entered domestic services: usually working for neighbors,
cooking, cleaning and looking after children.
-hard work and improvement: a lifetime of work. Make it productive for a
Quebec city: a catholic destination—arriving in Quebec and some of them
ended up staying there. Attract Irish catholic in particular. Catholic church
were powerful in Quebec city. Policing were considered as a stable and good
job. Protestants kept those jobs. Catholic built largest union.
-ship laborers benevolent association. ---quite large influence
The loyal orange lodge, deeply loyal to British crown which gave them
privileges afterwards. Built local lodges. Similar to the one they had in
Ireland. Adopt a secret Rachel. Take charge of the hierarchy. Foreign influence and danger. Particularly
conflict between the Orangemen and catholic people.
July 12 . Marks the time when protestant try over the catholic.
-a cultural transplant
-founded in Ulster, 1795
-ideology and practices
-in Canada, 1820s to 1840s
-immigrant aid: provided by Orangeman.
-social and political assertion
Roman catholic church
A strong presence in Quebec and thus beyond
-spread rapidly in Irish settlements
-the ‗Irishification‖ of the catholic church in Ontario, turned to priest.
Catholic church also shifted as it spread out in Canada, French influence was
small in Ontario at this time. Mainly by scots. When the Irish arrived in large
number, many Irish priests came.
-local centers of social life, mutual aid
-defense of publicly supported catholic schools ( get more and more public
funding for school) put them in conflict with the protestants. Catholic won
-clash with protestant opponents
Orange vs. green
By the 1830s, strong green. Conflict between protestants and Catholics.
The famine immigration, 1846- 49
An aberration: brief, catastrophic disruption
Ireland‘s great potato famine, 1845-49
White spread famine, weakened not able to fight decease. Significant drop in
total Irish population.
-those people who wanted to get out got out to places like Canada.
Total collapse of potato crop -crop failure and famine worst in central and western Ireland, the poorest
and mostly Catholic areas
Ireland‘s population 8 million in 1841, 5.5 million by 1851, 1.5 emigrants.
-early 1840s about 10000 per year
1846, 43000, 1847 over 100000
at saint john N.B
1847: over 8000
tickets for Canada
deadly crossing: death rates 1 in 5 or 1 in 6
because of the disease spread out in vessel, particularly fever, they had flee
on the vessels, people die quickly once they are infected.
Grosse Isle quarantine station, est. 1832
As the ship came the river, doctor would examine the quarantine,
1847, line up of 27 ships of people who could not find beds and had no