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HIS 312 Jan 22.docx

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Ian Radforth

HIS 312 Jan 22, 2013 1/22/2013 1:08:00 PM Migration from Britain Large immigration of british people into Canada Reinforced Canada’s Britishness Upper Canada boomed Wartime migration 1800-1814 War=a brake on transatlantic migration Exception Newfoundland resident fishery (return home, not travel so much on the sea, some of the fisherman settled in NEW FOUNDLAND) 20,000 people Scots to nova scotia and PEI (Scottish immigrants, catholic, didn’t speak engliksh, spoke italic, couldn’t stay on the land, not so far from Scotland to N.A. and landscape similar with hometown) 8500 mostly highland scots pushed from highlands and western isles of Scotland --rising rents, declining opportunities -sold possessions to purchase passage -poverty on arrival --mostly catholic and gaelic-speaking Upper Canada, Mennonites and Glengarry Scots (80000 ) One group stands out-Mennonites, religious group , immigrants came here were once from German and spoke German. Responding to an offer made by the government. 80000 late loylists from US memmonites: 2000 german speakers Glengarry scots -forced to move -highland scots from Glengarry, facing decline and dispersal -self-financed, group movements to preserve kin networks and community -a distinct, Gaelic-speaking settlement in Glengarry, UC -wanted to remain on the land and be farmers and thought could fulfill goal by coming to Canada Glengarry—ilaic spoken. The great migration 1815-65 The label for a movement of 6 millikon from Britain -emigrations from Britain a significant social phenomenon great migration’s wide impact -4 million to U.S. -1.5 million to Canada -nearly 1 million to Australia and Newzealand BNA population growth : 600000 to 3.5 million 38% in UC, by 1861. The largest of the colony Spurts of immigration: 1831-1836 and 1846-51: were not steady, large from 1846 in connection with the Ireland migration. Who came to BNA Rough estimates only  -arrivals at Quebec: port of entry to Canada 60% Irish (biggest source of migration even bigger than English), 20% English, 20% Scotish. Most of them preceded to U.S. Quebec was the port of entry to U.S.. some found in NY preceded to Canada. -economic backgrounds of the immigrants: small amount of the immigrant were government people, some were second son (not inherited son). Not wealthy as their brothers but only some people. Tend to provide social leadership and political leadership in the colony. many poor people came to Canada. Some also arrived as poppers (turning to charity for support). Needed help and needed to find work. Even when the land was free at the early time they didn’t have money to buy tools to get through the first winter. - Largest group of English were from the middle class (middling class). Often supported themselves independently. Often owned small business and had sth to sell in Great Britain and afforded to travel and afforded settlement by buying tools. Prosperity in UC ha lots to do with the middling class of Great Britain. Investment of the land in Canada, investing their labor in the economy. -two streams: many were single people, agricultural labor in Britain, hope was to develop their own family farm in Canada, also some single women, initially worked in other people’s houses by doing housework and real goal was to marry here. In addition, were family migrants. Whole family group has wider network of support. From Kin connection and important for their successful settlement in Canada. Why did this migration occur Push and pull factors --the push short term -postwar hardship and turmoil: 1815, economic collapse after war ended, huge number of soldiers had no work. People couldn’t find work. long term --commercialization of agriculture: the most important one --- industrialization: GB was the first nation to industrialized. Labor market changed, huge number of people worked in hand factory. Hand made products couldn’t compete with machine-made products and lost their works ---population growth: higher rent, people couldn’t afforded. ---crop failures and famines: potato famines in 1840 in Ireland, and other occasional famines made people hungry ---government policies: lax enforcement of the passenger acts: didn’t do much to encourage or discourage, regulation for condition of sailing vessels. They could charge little for the ticket which facilitate immigration Pull factors -chain migration crucial: ordinary people telling others about
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