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HIS312H1 (86)
Lecture 2

HIS312 Week 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Geoffrey Mac Donald

HIS312- Week 2 Migration  Immigration 1500-1760- small erratic immigration; scattered settlements, colonization of Canada by France and England by charter groups  Early Canada= a historians convenience (eventually would become part of Canada later ex. Newfoundland which was previously not part of New France)  Focus on Newcomers, not the Aboriginal peoples or early Canada, generally though aboriginals were in far larger number than newcomers, newcomers often adapted slightly to aboriginals ways  For the period of new Canada the sources are very limited, the sources we do have are shipping records (reporting on what was imported into the colonies; people and goods) army and navy records, advertisements for recruiting (poor people who couldn’t write)  European Expansion occurred for the purpose of Gold (economic motivations for moving to Canada), God (to convert Aboriginals to religious beliefs of newcomers Catholicism) and Glory (the glory of discovering and peopling a new land, imperial glory: indirect alliances with aboriginal people and directly colonization by French settlers) cod was very important for newcomers, fishing became an important industry as well as fur trading  France claimed an enormous chunk of North America as its empire, they had only little amounts of people living in scattered areas  The English too laid claim to a large area along the coast of North America  Both France and England attempted to fully colonize the areas of North America where they were planted, this was a way of strengthening their empires  Gold came in the form of cod and cod fisheries and fur and the fur trade with aboriginal people  God came in the form of Jesuits who spread the word of god to aboriginals  French settlers along the St Lawrence river finally came to plant crops and farm the land St Lawrence Valley  Cartier claimed the St Lawrence region for France, there was seasonal fur trade prior to the attempt to a permanent settlement  The first real settlement came with Samuel de Champaign who made a fur trade post in Quebec, with a small population in 1608  The goal was to expand out from the small fur trade post in Quebec and people North America much further, this all occurred a century after the first settlement  The French Crown (government) gave the job of populating New France to private companies (proprietors) from 1608-1660 3,000 immigrants came to Canada  The fur traders were told they would get monopoly over the land if they brought settlers to the land  In 1663 the government of France decided to become directly involved with the immigrations occurring to Canada in the 1660s and 1670s substantial immigration occurred  Different groups of people were sponsored as immigrants to Canada most prominent were contract workers (engages), they were contracted out to fulfill a job such as labouring, unloading ships, building fortifications etc.  Soldiers also came as immigrants from the Carignan Regiment brought over by France to strengthen the colony against rivals (English and Aboriginal attacks; Iroquois) government offered the soldiers the opportunity to settle on lands in Canada (free lands to farm) as a sort of payment for their duty  Les filles du roi (the Kings Daughters) also immigrated to Canada due to their being enough men in Canada (soldiers and contract workers) they were young women from orphanages or church run organization who didn’t have bright futures in France who were to be married off and start creating new families. When the women arrived they were snapped up very quickly by the bachelors of Canada  There was also involuntary immigrants who came to Canada such as petty criminals (transported as punishment), captives (English) and African slaves (from the West Indies)  Backgrounds of the immigrants= half rural, half urban from western ports and surrounding vicinity; Paris  Initial settlements were in Montreal and Quebec but later immigrants spread out to the countryside, families farmed as a unit in the countryside, pay rent to the landlords of the are  St Lawrence valley immigration saw the arrival from France with about 27,000 people in 1608-1760 only 10000-12000 stayed and had children, by 1760 the population was 70,000 through natural increase  Britain was colonizing the Eastern Seaboard of Canada with 13 colonies totaling 2.2 million much more than that of France  Protestants were not allowed to leave France and settle in Canada which could account for the smaller number of immigrants from France in comparison to England, there were also material reasons for Frenchman to not immigrate there was no push factor and no pull factor from Canada.  People in France heard about Canada through Jesuits missionaries who were advertising their triumph over the savages of Aboriginals, they told stories of hardship which didn’t fully encourage people to immigrate (their idea was to entice people into reading the advertisements and fund their missions) Acadia/Nova Scotia  France and England were rivals in colonizing this area due to the lush fishing areas, if you controlled this area you had direct controlling access over the St Lawrence river, England wanted to control this area to protect the 13 colonies  French colonization of NS began in 1604 when de Mont’s settled on the Bay of Fundy, 1604- 1760 a few hundred French immigrants moved to NS as well, not very many people however it was a flourishing settlement with rich soils, great fishing, good farming, trading with New England and also traded with Aboriginals  Imperial rivalries in this area agreed in 1713 that Britain would control Nova Scotia, France claimed Cape Breton where they build Louisburg (a fort to provide a naval base and a French presence to the St Lawrence) British in retaliation to Louisburg founded Halifax  The British had a concern for the security of NS they attempted to get Acadian farmers to swear their allegiance to the British monarch however farmers hedged their bets and remained somewhat neutral, Governor Charles Lawrence decided this was not good so he deported Acadians in 1755 nearly 6,000 were deported immediately and 6,000 more soon after this was quite devastating with mories of exile  British from t
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