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HIS312H1 (86)


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Ian Radforth

LECTURE 1: Migration and Colonization in Early Canada Introduction Immigration 1500-1760 - small, erratic immigration: scattered settlements - Colonization of Canada by France and England - charter groups 'Early Canada' = a historian's convenience Focus on newcomers, not the Aboriginal peoples Sources limited - from when European settlers came to Canada up until the British conquest in 1760 - throughout this whole period, immigration was small - inclusion of Newfoundland -- Canada at the time only referred to settlements along th St. Lawrence's River - immigrants from Europe and some from Africa Sources from - ships' captains having to report to authorities, what they were inmporting to the colonies -- goods and people - these records help us find out exactly how many came and on what ships - government/military archives - advertisements where immigrants were recruited - a great majority of immigrants were poor, non-educated, and who couldn't write letters so we don't have letters to go on very much, even if we have a few of them European Expansion - Gold/ God, and Glory - news quickly got around that Spaniards had done well getting gold in the New World so other states became interested in enhancing their own wealth - as it turned out, gold was not found but fish was - cod fishery, fur trade, Jesuit missionary among the Hurons - French settlers near the St Lawrence River - Economic; fish and furs - off Nova Scotia, St. Lawrence, Quebec, fish were found - fish were of great value to merchants - fur trade development between Aboriginals and the newcomers, the former of who hoped to improve their lives by trading with the Europeans who in turn wanted to improve their trading with China Religious: Catholic missions to Christianize Aboriginal peoples - 17th c. Catholic Christians were interested in bringing God to the heathens, particularly the Aboriginals, and the Church tried to convert them in this period Imperial glory: empire building; rivalries - monarchs wanted to build their empires, claim authority over vast regions, where you have, perhaps, no colonists living - indirect: alliances with Aboriginal groups - direct:colonization by French settlers - English had settlements/arrangements with Aboriginal peoples all along the shores - they all tried to colonize further by planting their own people from the homeland to get a firmer hold on these lands The St Lawrence Valley ('Canada') - explored in the 1530s and claimed by France by Jaques Cartier - first colonial settlement at Quebec - Samuel de Champlain, 1608 - now Quebec City - tiny, fur-trade post, fortified against the possibility of attack from either the English rival traders or Aboriginals - a few missiponaries, traders, court workers, loaders and unloaders of vessels - the start of the permanent settlement - the goal was to expand from this area with immigrants who would be settlers, colonists, who would have farms that would go from the St. L R and go back in-land Colonization - the French government delegated to fur trade companies, proprietors - they were responsible for bringing 3000 arrivals by 1660 (only) - indeed, the French crown was disturbed by this slow progress - fur traders thought bringing colonists was a burden and did not enjoy the job - they were a cost and burden - Royal intervention, 1663, King Louis XIV - to strengthen the conoization - Substantial immigration from 1660s to 1670s - most numberous were Engages (contract workers) -- some did labouring jobs, loading and unloading ships, protected the colony, put to work to farm, to provide food for fur traders and missionaries -- some of them were skilled and did fine work -- usually they were 3 year contracts and the person who imployed them guaranteed wages fo 3 yrs and promised to pay the costs of migration both ways -- a large proportion of the contract workers ended up returning to France and did not settle -- some, however, saw an opportunity and decided to stay - soldiers (the Carignan Regiment) -- were offered the opportunity to settle -- granted free land to farm, a kind of payment for doing duty - Les filles du roi (the King's Daughters) -- 770 were brought over as potential wives -- recruited mainly in Paris, from orphanages or Church-run institutions -- women who did not have a bright future in France and the crown thought they would have a better chance in 'Canada' -- when they arrived in bachelor Canada, they were highly popular and soon got married/bore children -- responsible for much of the growth in population - Involuntary migrants - petty criminals -- not serious criminals - captives (English) -- had settled in the British co
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