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HIS312H1 (86)
Lecture 3


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Ian Radforth

LECTURE 3: Migration from Britain, 1800-1865 Wartime migration, 1800-1814 - small - exceptions - Newfoundland's resident fishery - Nova Scotia and PEI: Scottish settlements - Upper Canada: Late Loyalists, Mennonites, Glengarry Scots - New Brunswick = Nova Scotia, Quebec = Upper Canada The Great migration, 1815-65 - Just prior to Independence - Canada = one destination for 6 million Britons - Who were the immigrants? - Push and Pull factors - The transatlantic passage - 'Success"' (at the expense of First Nations) British North America early nineteenth century: - the Canadian component of the great Migration was just one small component Immigration to British North America, 1800-181 - a period of war; - Napoleonic Wars in Europe, 1793-1815m involved Britain a whole lot - War of 1812 in North America, 1812-14 - this discouraged migration, not just the war but also the dangers of crossing the Atlantic (uncertainty of ship being attacked or impressed into the Royal Navy) - the economy was booming during wartime in Britain so people weren't in need of work or going abroad to find it - the War of 1819 ended the Late loyalist influx - people looking for land and opportunity in Southern Quebec and Ontario, in substantial numbers Some Exceptions - Newfoundland: - Migratory fishery smaller, resident fishery grew -population increased from 20k to 35k - immigrants were still coming from West Country in England and the southern shores of Ireland - Nova Scotia an PEi - 8.5k were immigrants from Scotland - Pushed from highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, rugged areas hard to survive in - rising rents, declining opportunities - the "Scottish clearances" when the landlords kicked them out due to not needing them - sold possessions to purchase passage to NS and PEI - Poverty on arrival - Mostly Catholic and Gaelic-speaking - it took most of their resources to buy passage - they struggled to build farms in the wilderness without any tools except their own determination and backs Upper Canada - 80k Late Loyalists from US to 1812 - not true loyalists but they were moving across the American Frontier - it was easy for them to come here seeing as there were no crossings for them to make, leading to a safe travel north - Mennonites: 2k German-speaking pacific to Waterloo - protestants, pacifists, many had moved to Pennsylvania - Glengarry Scots - Highland Scots from Glengarry, Scotland - facing decline and dispersal: the 'sheep clearances" - they had the resources and wherewithal - Self-financed, group movements to preserve kin networks and community - 9 sailings of 2k settlers - a distinct, Gaelic-speaking settlement in Glengarry, UC - the settled in eastern Ontario, right in the wilderness, along the St. Lawrence River - they wanted to retain their Scottish way of life in Canada - they depended on kin-networks, these clans, since family connection was very important to the Glengarry Scots The Great Migration, 1815-65 - The label for a movement of 6 million from Britain - Emigration from Britain became a significant social phenomenon in Britain - a big impact on the receiving countries, like British North America BNA (i.e. Canada) - 4 mil to US - 1.5 mil to Canada - 1 mil to Australia and New Zealand - BNA population grew sixfold: 600k to 3.5 mil - 38% Upper Canada (Ontario) = went to the biggest province from the sparsest - Spurts of immigration - 1831-36, generally prosperous immigrants - 1846-51, Irish potato famine immigrant
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