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HIS312 SEPT17.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Radforth

01 - September 17th - Migration and Colonization in Early Canada & The Loyalist Influx Lecture 1 - Migration & Colonization in Early Canada France and England Colonize Canada  Immigration 1500-1760 o Small,erratic immigration; scattered settlements, usually had little to do with one another o Colonization of Canada by France and England - colonization initiatives by France and England to expand empire o Charter groups - founding people of modern Canada  'Early Canada' = a historian's convenience - referred actually to the St. Lawrence area, we pretend it was almost inevitable that Canada was going to be created from these groups in the area that is Canada today  Focus on newcomers, not the Aboriginal peoples  Sources limited - what do we have? Shipping records captains were made to report as to what they were bringing in good and immigrants - sometimes the shipping records are useful for finding numbers of people that came at certain times; British Imperial Archives, Army and Navy records - they usually say something coincidentally about their emigrants to the new world; Advertisements - posters, newspapers, they tell us about who was recruiting, how many could go, what ship etc.; Accounts by the Immigrants themselves are missing entirely other than those who were actually educated and literate who tended to be biased European Expansion: Gold, God and Glory  Gold - economic motivations to come to Canada and Europe had heard that Spain found gold in the Americas, and hoped they would find it in North America, codfish and furtrade were the real economic boosts which greatly involved the Native population  God - religious impulse behind exploration in early Canada, in the 17th century Catholic missions became very fashionable and missions to North America were one aspect of missionary outreach to the "heathens" or Aboriginal peoples, particularly Jesuits  Glory - Monarchs and states wanted to enhance their prestige among their rivals by acquiring empires. Some of this meant claiming authority over vast regions you had no to little contact with, France claimed an enormous chunk of North America as its empire but it had very few people living there, they claimed it through diplomacy and warfare with the Natives, the English claimed a large chunk along the coast and also made arrangements with Natives, they both also tried to colonize people and claim them more thoroughly The St. Lawrence Valley ("Canada")  Explored 1530s and claimed by France, Jaques Cartier; it took a long time for the fur trade to catch on the first attempt at a permanent settlement was 1608 under Samuel de Champlain and founded Quebec at what is now Quebec City; it was fortified and housed very few people, some missionaries, fur traders and port workers; the goal was to expand out from this tiny post with French settlers and farms around the river and water  Colonization o Crown delegated to the fur trade companies "proprietors" o Only 3000 arrivals by 1660 - fur traders saw immigrants as a burden on the trade o Royal intervention, 1663, King Louis XIV o Substantial immigration 1660s and 1670s - the heaviest immigration under the whole French Canadian early regime  Engages (contract workers) - individual men who had a contract to do work, some of them farmed to provide food to other settlers; some of them were more skilled and did specialized jobs like millwrights and coopers - usually a 3 year contract and the person who employed them guaranteed wages for 3 years and pay costs of migration to and from he colonies, a lot of the Engages would return to France, but some decided to stay  Soldiers (the Carignan Regiment) - to strengthen the colonies against the British and Native attacks, the Carignan Regiment were sent to beat the Iroquois and gave them the opportunity of free land to farm here as a reward, some of them stayed  Les filles du roi (the King's Daughters) - 1770 they were brought over as potential wives recruited mainly in Paris from orphanages or church run institutions, women who did not have a bright future in France and have children, they were snapped up by the bachelors almost instantly and were responsible for much of the growth of the population o Involuntary Migrants  Petty Criminals - 720 of them were transported as punishment to Canada, they were not serious criminals, England did the same thing  English Captives - they had been captured in raids and wars and brought back to Canada and some of them learned French and stayed  African Slaves - small number of African slaves brought into the colony just over 300, slavery was legal, but it never flourished, mainly servants and household helpers or property care, most came from the West Indies to Caribbean and then traded or purchased and brought to Canada  Backgrounds of Immigrants o Half rural, half urban- likely became rural when you came regardless o Western ports and vicinity, Paris - Western port towns were involved in trading so natural they transported people  Destinations o Initially the towns (Quebec, Montreal) o Then to the countryside and family farms  Rural Colony o Family Farms  Immigration to the St.Lawrence Valley, 1608-1760 o 27,000 French immigrant arrivals o 10-12000 stayed on and had children o Population by 1760: 70,000 o Britain's Thirteen Colonies: 2.2 Million  Small numbers of immigrants vs New England  Why? Push and Pull Factors: France believed France should be Catholic and the Protestant minority were not allowed to settle in New France, had France let them it would have been much higher; ordinary poor people at the time had a reasonable level of security which meant they weren't forced to leave, Jesuit Relations were letters back to France explaining what was going on here and to bring more people and to raise funds but they told stories of hardship and liked to tell tales about how risky it was for them to be there, news of Canada in France was mostly negative Acadia/Nova Scotia - Imperial Rivalries, A Disputed Region  France and England as Rival Colonizers o Lucrative Fisheries o Defence - wanted to protect other colonies in the wider region, and the English wanted to control the region to keep the French from coming South o Thus, an unstable borderland - the two rival imperial powers tried to claim jurisdiction  French Colonization in "Acadia" o 1604 de Monts settlement on Bay of Fundy shore o 1604-1760 only a few hundred French immigrants to Acadia o Yet a flourishing settlement  12,000-15,000 Acadians by 1750s  Prosperous farming on drained marshland  Good fishing  Thriving trade with New England and Aboriginal people and lived with them in peace  Imperial Rivalries o 1713 Acadia awarded to Britain, renamed Nova Scotia o France retained interest, a partial claim (to Cape Breton where they built Louisbourg)  1713, on west shore and it was a settlement and fort o British founded Halifax in 1749 in retaliation  Imperial Rivalries and deportation o British concern for security of Nova Scotia 1750s o Acadian farmers refuse to swear allegiance to British monarch, hedging bets o Governor Charles Lawrence decides they are to be deported, 1755 o 1755 immediately 6,000 deported; soon 6,000 more o Deva
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