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HIS312H1 (86)

September 21&27

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Radforth

HIS312 September Lectures Lecture 2; Sept 21 st Early days of immigration, people mainly came from France and Britain -Small, erratic immigration was sparse; people were disconnected from one another - immigrants tried to assert themselves into aboriginal places - this didnt go over poorly, the number of newcomers was small, aboriginals found ways of accomodating these newcomers - there was some violence but for the most part things were welcoming, beneficial, trade happened. -biggest source of suffering came from the disease the newcomers brought, many aboriginals died - few accounts from the immigrants themselves who came to Canada, there were advertisements from their home countries that are still around -most new immigrants were illiterate, very little to go on for the ordinary immigrant - European expansion, 1490s led to further exploration into North America Gold, God and Glory -3 main reasons for exploration - gold wasnt found, however economic success came through fur and fish which could be traded internationally for profit. - did not encourage large-scale expansion due to the nature of the economy. The fur trades required few people, work mostly done by the indigenous people. - fishermen; migratory, came out in their boats, fished, and returned home. Didnt settle down -God, Christian missions were very active particularly in the 17 C. - priests who arrived, didnt reproduce; little impact on settling -Glory -desire for international prestige of monarchs, heads of state. -believed if they acquired vast territory they would be feared etc. -acquired land through alliances with native peoples Canada--St. Lawrence Valley - Part of what was soon called Canada, St. Lawrence river was first explored by Cartier. - French attempts to create settlements here, none of them were successful until 1608; Samuel de Champlain - French govs original plan for populating the area was that it was better to have some French people living here amongst the traders with the natives -Proprietorships; privately run businesses who were interested in establishing fur trading along the St. Lawrence river. Part of the deal was to bring over some immigrants and to assert Christianity in Canada. -did this unenthusiastically didnt care for immigrants, main purpose was profit through furs -would hire others who would get immigrants to settle. Offered them free land, offered to pay their way across the Atlantic as an inducement to come and settle -by 1660, only about 3000 french immigrants had come to the st. Lawrence area to settle - King Louis XIV aggressively moved immigration forwards -busy decades 1660s-70s, a large # of immigrants arrived in the St. Lawrence Valley -then the French gov lost interest and fewer immigrants came -1763; French gov gave up its claim to the St. Lawrence valley -by 1760, population was 75 000 people - from these, 10k immigrants who stayed that the entire Quebec population is derived. - rural settlers on the land, running their own independent farms; that was the attraction of coming to Canada Who were these French immigrants? -half rural France, half urban places -most of them ended up in rural Canada - urban immigrants came from port cities such as La Rochelle - these ports already have commercial ties with the fur trade in Canada -most of rural imms came from the back country of those ports along the west coast -immigrant males greatly outnumbered the females -most came as contract workers, thus males. engages they had an engagement; contract - these young men signed a 3 year contract to work at a particular kind of work in Canada. Either the gov or proprieter paid their ticket across the atlantic, guaranteed them work for 3 years, sometimes housing and food too, and they were to do particular kinds of work. Such as building roads, houses, furniture. -very few women came as contract workers - some of these indentured servants became permanent settlers, some took out a farm, got a land grant and began to build a farm - others however returned, 25k immigrants came, 15k went home, only 10k stayed. - these contracts usually came with tickets to go home, thus why many returned to France
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