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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - Sept 27 2011

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Radforth

HIS312 – Lecture 3 – September 27 2011 Making a British Canada >> Settlements particularly strong in St. Lawrence Valley started by France >> Up to the time of British conquest and 1760-70s immigration levels were low until loyalists arrived from US >> Rush of loyalists settled mostly in Atlantic Canada and Upper Canada >> Helped make British presence more 'real' >> Britain came to people Canada, particularly Upper Canada >> period 1815-1860s >> British presence grew hugely >> Still a large French speaking minority in Lower Canada >> Significant minority >> Aboriginal peoples in BNA, but on decline – disease, disposessed, etc.. >> BNA in these years was made up of several colonies – NF, NS, NB, PEI, Lower and Upper Canada Immigration to BNA, 1800 – 1815 >> A period of war >> Dominated late 18 and early 19 century >> Napoleonic Wars (1793 - 1815) >> War of 1812 between Britain and US (1812 – 14) >> Dangers of transatlantic travel due to wars >> economic boom in Great Britain due to wars >> people were contented and did not really want to move around >> when Canada was a battleground, immigration virtually stopped >> some exceptions >> NF – dangers of Atlantic travel had opposite effect than the rest of the colonies >> Fishing industry >> about 35k living in NF after 1812 war up from 5k in 1750 >> Protestant and RC >> West country Englishmen and souther Irish >> Scots in Maritime colonies – 8500 emigrants left Scotland for maritimes >> Some Scottish immigration prior to this, but increased in 1801 >> mostly from highlands and facing tough economic changes at home >> Most significant factor was decline of the kelping industry (seaweed) which was used for fertilizer and soap and glass making >> poor job situation >> cutting back on labourors to save money >> sold off what they could to afford transit – cattle, sheep, etc.. >> immigrant agents looking for profit >> arrived in the maritimes extremely poor as the used all their money to get there >> experienced severe poverty in first years >> persavered and eventually recovered >> gaelic speaking >> added to Canada's diversity >> Upper Canada also has exceptions to immigration >> late loyalists from US >> nearby frontier settlement regions >> Mennonites small religious sect of German speaking protestants >> many had gone to Penn. And built farms but still felt fear there and did not want to be forced to serve in military >> deal with British to guarantee lands and to practice religion and free from conscription >> about 2000 came, settling near Waterloo county >> Scots that settled along the St Lawrence in what is now Ontario >> most came from Scotland, some for US >> nine shiploads came >> Highlanders that were facing downward mobility at home >> also facing economic insecurities with transition to commercial agriculture and feared their communities would fracture and be forced to work in factories or travel for work >> wanted to preserve their way of life, culture, language, >> connected through kin and clan networks which they also wanted to preserve >> Glengarry >> establish Glengarry ON >> brilliantly preserved their way of life and culture >> self contained settlement The Great Migration, 1815 – 65 >> The label for a movement of 6 million from Britain (or more) >> emigration was a significant phenomenon in Britain >> immigrants would have a huge impact on the receiving countries to which they arrived >>Arrived at Quebec and St John, etc.. >> about 4 million went to the US >> Single most important destination >> about 1.5 million came to Canada >> nearly 1 million to Australia and New Zealand >> BNA pop growth: 600k to 3.5 million >> 38% in Upper Canada >> Peak years of immigration: 1831 – 6, 1846 – 51 >> great potato famine in Ireland in 1840s >> Who Came to BNA? >> Weak statistical base; rough estimates only >> no one actually kept track of immigrants >> arrivals at Quebec: 60% Irish; 20% English; 20% Scottish >> a lot continued on to the US >> people also coming to Canada from the US and had landed at NYC >> Still no figures on immigrants >> Economic backgrounds of the immigrants >> military officers on half-pay >> provided social leadership >> second sons >> under British law the eldest son would inherit the father's estate >> small numbers, large impact >> Poor with few resources and paupers >> Many were assisted in coming to Canada >> large proportion of the very poorest went to the US >> majority that came were middlings of society
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