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Lecture 5

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Ian Radforth

HIS311 – Lecture 5 – Oct 3 2011 Irish Immigration to British North America, 1815-1865 >> Ontario was the growth area of Canada >> Why Feature the Irish? >> large numbers, perhaps 60% of total >> hard to establish hard numbers as discussed before >> Excellent example of cultural transfer >> brought and spread their own culture here >> i.e. The Orange Order >> Most tragic moment of the Great Migration >> second half of 1840s >> catastrophic time in history >> Famine migration was an aberration of general immigration >> many moved on to the U.S. >> best studied group of immigrants >> very good secondary sources to which we base our understanding today >> Three phases >> pre-famine 1815-1845 >> famine >> post famine >> Irish History >> English rule of Ireland from 1169 >> 1600s: England planted Scottish Presbyterians in northern Ireland (Ulster) >> 1700s: imposition of an Anglo Irish elite (Church of Ireland, i.e. Anglican Church) >> Irish troubles of the late 1700s >> rebellion and political unrest >> Irish union: from 1801 part of the United Kingdom >> formally British >> troubles continued >> Roman Catholics without political rights until 1820s >> majority on the island >> did not have right to vote >> Pre-famine Immigration, 1815-1845 >> Numerical significance >> Who? >> Middling ranks, farmers >> poor could not afford to come to Canada so ended up in Glasgow, etc. >> Mainly Protestant, though Catholic minority large >> Most Catholic Irish immigrants went to the U.S. Because it was not British >> Feared declined prospects and future >> Economic position >> Agriculture changes >> Farm families had supplemented income by weaving cloth >> selling the cloth was significant income >> declined as textile mills started >> automated and cheaper that home made wares >> Political, social position >> Protestant Irish who lived in the Catholic districts felt >> Catholic rights granted and were outnumbered Settlement >> Drawn to Agriculture >> Independent on family farms >> provide for their family and acquire more lands >> no land lord >> could run farm as they saw fit, ie plant what they want >> Protestants and Catholics alike >> “Occupational pluralism” >> some of the fathers would hold a job for wages while running their farms >> farms in the summer, lumber in the winter >> The agro-forest economy of New Brunswick and the Ottawa Valley: farming and lumbering combined >> A success story >> good farm land still readily available >> Hard work and improvement >> Set the social norms and structures >> Brought with them their culture and made an impact Institution-building >> The Loyal Orange Lodge >> excellent example of a cultural transplant brought to Canada >> founded in Ulster in 1795; to Canada in 1812 >> anti-Catholic >> defending Protestant privileges in Ulster >> Proliferation of local lodges >> 1830s all over Atlantic Canada >> fraternal organization >> women could not join >> voluntary organization >> Ideology >> Protestantism and the British crown as guarantors of liberty and justice >> Anti-papist >> the pope was not the holy father/out to undermine liberty >> Appeal >> conviviality, male bonding >> they liked to drink together >> mutual aid (and exclusion) >> advice to get started >> directed to particular lines of work >> specific jobs were just for the Orangem
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