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Lecture 10

Lecture 10: Immigration and Emigration in the Confederation Era

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University of Toronto St. George
Ian Radforth

Lecture 10: Immigration and Emigration in the Confederation Era -nation-bldg and disappointments -British North America Act, 1867 -Canadas first Immigration Act in 1869 -immigration and nation-bldg -1860s: 220 000 in vs. 400 000 out -1870s: 300 000 in vs. 350 000 out -the appeal of the US -the Confederation era, the 3 decades after 1867 -Confederation a great hope -develop Canadian resources, to attract vast numbers, to build a broad-based eco. society -but the immigrant numbers were never as bit as hoped, in fact quiet a few ppl left -tried to attract and retain immigrants, but mixed results -the new Dominion of Canada est. with 1867 -ON, QC, NS, and NB, the 4 provinces -only 3.5 million ppl, ON the biggest, and had benefited from substantial immigration -British North America Act, came into effect on July 1, 1867 -also provided a constitution -gave the powers for the feds and the provinces -for immigration, weirdly a responsibility for both the provinces and the feds -but Ottawa took most of the power, argued that immigration central to natl development, so should be a fed responsibility -but provinces did best to try and control it, alongside it -1869, first Immigration Act -didnt really do a lot -just to keep out the destitute and the unhealthy -immigration seen as a priority -esp. in the Northwest, referred to Manitoba, Alberta, and Saskatchewan -all created at the same time -also BC created and then joined by the railway -seen as empty -though abs. ppl already there, along with fur traders, and the Metis -in 1871 census, shown that in the 1860s that the great Brit migration slowed down, very few Irish, just mostly the English, increasingly went to the US, Australia, New Zealand -1860s: 220 000 in and 400 000 out -overwhelmingly went to the US -pattern continued into the 1870s, even with drive to populate the Northwest -1870s: 300 000 in and 350 000 out -against most went to he US -in the Maritimes, trad. solidified for young ppl, esp. the men to go to Boston, the coastal
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