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Lecture 19

HIS312H1 - Lecture 19.docx

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Ian Radforth

Lecture 19Multicultural Policy and Its CriticsIntroductionA history of assimilation and exclusionGradual growth of acceptance of distinct ethnic minorities towards the mosaicGovernment policies reach out to minoritiesOfficial multiculturalism 1971In retrospect a shift in Canadas core valuesDiversity an asset not a weaknessLiving with differenceOpposition voicesThe deep roots of multiculturalismPluralism toleration of cultural differences o John Murray Gibbon The Canadian Mosaic 1938Folk festivals celebrating diversity o International Institute of Metropolitan Toronto 1950sMutual respect appreciation of diverse heritages integration Unity in diversityEthnic groups in Canada are like musicians in an orchestraGovernment policies o WWII Nationalities Branch 1941Bringing ethnic minorities on side with Canadas war effortOttawas grants to ethnic organizations and publishers Politicians established links with ethnic leadersbrokers o Postwar reconstruction planning Citizenship Division of the Secretary of State 1944Permanent programs to enlist support of ethnic associationso Citizenship Act 1947From British subjects to Canadian citizens shedding a vestige of colonialism belonging to the nation not the empireLiberal individualism each Canadian belongs to anational community without reference to racial religious cultural or linguistic differences Canadians allruns counter to pluralism of groupsTowards a multiculturalism policy in the 1960s o Growing concern about inequalitiesJohn Porter The Vertical Mosaic 1965Sociological study exposed and critiqued the hierarchy of ethnic groups with AngloCanadians having wealth and power o The Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism appointed 1963 reported 1965 and 1969A response to political anxietiesQuebecs new nationalism and the rise of separatism The decline of Britishness in Canada and rise of Canadian nationalismGrowing opposition to US cultural and economic dominanceo Bi and Bi plan public discussion and recommendations about How to ensure French Canadians feel they belong everywhere in CanadaHow English Canadians can take pride in a Canada that is distinct from the US o Surprise Ethnic minorities were highly vocalAsked where do we fitDemanded recognition too o Bi and Bi Preliminary Report 1965
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