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HIS314H1 (5)
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French Canada and the First World War.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS314H1
Professor
Kenneth Mills
Semester
Fall

Description
HIS314 French Canada and the First World War October 1 2012 th Changes in French Canada and Quebec at the beginning of the 20 century Canadian Imperialism th - The ideas of Canadian Imperialism, shaped around the turn of the 20 century, became the dominant form of nationalism in English Canada - The idea was that Canada could play an important, even crucially dominant role, in the British Empire - The idea that Canada could develop itself as a nation through greater participation in the Empire - These ideas of Canadian Imperialism couldn`t be divorced from religion and the Protestant faith (many Protestant churches throughout English Canada propagated these ideas of Canadian Imperialism) South African War - 7000 volunteers from Canada went - There was an incredible push of pro-Empire causes - Saw it as a fight for British freedom - First time that Canada sent troops overseas - After the war, monuments were build, parades were held, street celebrations for returning soldiers - Montreal saw through the course of the war not only mass celebrations for the British cause, but also street rioting, opposition, clashes between young English protestant students studying at McGill with students studying at what would become UofM (French) - The rise of Canadian imperialism greatly affected French Canada Frederick George Scott - Anglican minister - Wrote poems and documents about the atmosphere around the return of troops from South Africa Transformations in Catholicism - Effort among many Catholic groups to found Catholic Action groups - The effort to build religious-based organizations that would intervene in non-religious sphere - For example, in 1900, Desjardin was founded as a credit union, an effort to give workers access to savings and credit, to create a collective movement to get French Canadians the ability to control credit outside the Anglo-owned Canadian banks - Trade unions are another example as an alternative to the American/English Canadian run trade unions - Confédération des travailleurs catholiques du Canada (CTCC) - These trade unions coming together Henri Bourassa, pt. 1 - One of the most important French Canadian nationalists of the 20 century th - Liberal MP who refused to support the British war effort in the South African War HIS314 French Canada and the First World War October 1 2012 - To Bourassa, Canada should be independent, should not be tied to Britain or British war efforts but should try to develop some sort of independent national identity - He vehemently denounced Canada’s participation in the South African War - In the English Canadian press he was constantly denounced as a traitor - His final break with Laurier came with the Naval Services Act in 1909 o Canada created a navy very much designed for imperial defence - Bourassa denounced this navy, while many in English Canada denounced that it was so small Transformations in nationalism - The rise of Anglo-Canadian imperialism had a great effect on their French Canadian counterparts Nationalism and Feminism - Because Women were mothers, it was argued that women had a particularly important role to play in society because they controlled the home - In the late 19 and early 20 century ,questions of infant mortality, alcoholism, etc. became particular issues for women and whether or not they should intervene - We see the emergence of new feminist organizations st Concerns of 1 wave feminism - Very much shaped by an ideology of maternalism, that women as mothers had a particular way in which they could contribute to political debate st - The early 1 wave feminist insituttions that emerged were very much from the elite (high ranked women, not middle class  Montreal Local Council of Women o First Montreal feminist organization, 1903 o Mostly composed of English-speaking members  Fédération nationale Saint-Jean-Baptiste o First French-Language feminist organization to emerge, 1907 - Despite the fact that the 1 wave of feminist activism in Quebec was shaped by maternalist ideology and the ideology of separate spheres, it was still considered by some to be radical, that it stood for the destruction of the family, and that because the family stood at the heart of the nation feminism led to the undoing of society itself - For FNSJB, they made sure they had the sanction of the Bishop before founding their organization, yet they still faced this incredible backlash against them Henri Bourassa and Quebec nationalism, pt. 2 - It’s in the context of English Canadian imperialism that Bourassa emerged as a powerful voice of French Canadian nationalism - He had a vision of Canada that differed radically from the dominant opinion in English Canada - Bourassa was the grandson of Louis Joseph Papineau - He was incredibly devoted to the idea of duality, the idea that English and French Canadians should have positions of equality within Canada, HIS314 French Canada and the First World War October 1 2012 - Also, that Canada should play an autonomous role in the world, not as part of an Empire - It should develop its own ideas on its own - Because of his anti-imperialism ideology, he came to be seen as a traitor by many in English Canada - Many of Bourassa’s ideas very much were inspired by being able to define itself by opposition to an “other” - That “other” was the English Canadian Protestant - The fear of losing French Canadian catholic society was a constant fear for him - His prime devotion was not just to the French Canadian culture but also to the Catholic Church - He very much saw the French Canadian Catholic church was the primary institution of society - In many ways, he stood in defense of traditional French Canadian society - Bourassa has a very different legacy depending on which historian you ask - Bourassa and feminism: - French Canadian nationalists generally came out against suffragist movements in favour of traditional society - Bourassa’s newspaper Le Devoir came out powerfully against women’s right to vote - Bourassa feared that feminism would create a breakdown in traditional society - He became heavily involved when the Canadian parliament was debating female voting rights in 1918 - The federal initiative to extend the vote to women occurred at the same time as the conscription riots in Quebec City - Bourassa thought that suffrage was just another Protestant idea, ill-suited for Catholic society - The depth to which Bourassa’s ideals permeated society is made evident by the behaviour of many Quebec women themselves, who organized anti-suffrage campaigns - Many argued that if wo
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