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his317 lecture 2.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

Lecture Two- September, 21 , 2011 Defeat, Revolution, and the “stab in the back”: the Weimar Republic Begins  Germany and the First World War o The assassination of Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, june 28 , 1914  Sarajevo  Him and his wife  Habsburg monarchy  Killed by Bosnian serb nationalists  Serbia- “rogue state”  June 28 significant date  Killing unleashth diplomatth crisis o The july crisis (june 28 -august 4 , 1914)  Communication happened by letter, telegraph  French ministers were meeting with Russian allies, leave by boat and total different situation then when they left the boat  Ends with europe‟s alliance system being set in motions  Russia, france, Britain- triple entente  Germany, AH and Italy- axis powers  Could have been a regional conflict, but Serbia had ally in Russia and AH in Germany  Results in the blank cheque  Germany‟s support for Austria- Hungary, the „blank cheque‟  Unconditionally back Austria Hungary  Know full well than Russia will enter war on side of Serbia  Russian Czar gives order for mobilization, once they do this so does everyone else th  By august 4 all have declared war on one another o The war in the west; the schlieffen plan (1905-1906) and the battle of Marne (september 1914)  Differs greatly from war in east  Trench warfare  Extremely costly in terms of men and money  Not a lot of movement  Move through Belgium to France- SPlan  Second part of SP not put into action bc the first part fails  Conquer northern France before French troops could get there (failed)  Problem bc you cannot just enter Belgium (against international law) o Invasion will bring GB into the war  SP stopped by French and British troops in Battle of Marne  Armies begin to dig in to ground  Trench building  Trench protects again machine gun fire  Trenches emerged in colonial warfare  Front lines that emerges in 1914 do not really change throughout the war o The war in the east: Tannenberg, the Masurian Lakes, the drive into Russian Poland  War of movement in the east  Move rapidly and take large swaths of territory  Russia  Germany‟s strategy was dictated by the Schlieffen plan  Germany appears to be moving toward its war aims o War aims: the “September Program” (1914), Germany‟s expansionist desires  War aims kept secret from population  Germany wanted Poland and Ukraine  Extensive war aims  September Memorandum- B-hollweig (chancellor of germany in 1909)  Outlined all their war aims  Not all parties participated in this  Christian party- peace without annexations o Social democratic party  Belgium was to become a subject state  Iron- ore of France to be annexed right away  Highly desired industrial area  Total war, 1916 o The move toward dictatorship, 1916  Military begins to take control of the government  Chancellor is silenced by generals  After B-Holleweig, series of chancellors who passively sit by  Luddendorf and Hindenburg o Two generals who rise to power in battle of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes o Heads of German General Staff o Hindenburg is Prussian Junker (old age, comes out of retirement to fight in war)  Fought in Franco-Prussian War in 1870 o Ludendorf is a middle class man  Ruthless military professional o Play crucial roles in war, also play important roles post-war o Hindenburg plays roles in getting hitler to power o Ludendorf is present in hitler‟s Beer-Hall Putsch o Total war- total mobilization of all of Germany‟s resources  Needs of the army of paramount importance, all needed for ends  Commerce was no longer free, became restricted st  Battle of Somme- july 1 , 1916
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