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HIS317H1 (43)
Lecture 5


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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

th October 19 , 2011 The Racial State, 1933-1939  The Seizure of Power (machtergreifung), 1933-34 o 1934- makes himself Fuhrer and Reichchancellor o Jan 30 1933- hitler is appointed as chancellor of the Weimar Republic  Weimar Republic still active at this point  Ceremony as way to legitimize Hitler  International press treats this appointment fairly lightly  Had seen him as a passing chancellor  Thought he would last two months and then someone else  Internationally still unknown  Quickly shows he is different, giant steps in consolidating rule and seize power  Clear about destroying treaty of Versailles  Germany was going to expand territorially outside its borders  That would mean war  Desire to build land empire in eastern Europe o Lebensram o Territories would be cleansed of jewish and Slavic populations  Made clear opinions on Jews  He was not secretive of his plans, very vocal  In order to make this plans happen, he need to be at center of state  He still has limited power in 1933  He moves to consolidate power  Three ways o Laws under article 48, emergency powers  Suspend civil rights in germany  He will begin to move with great violence against his political enemies  Feb –june 1933  The emergency decrees: the Reichstag fire, feb 27, 1933 o Start of Hitler’s power grab o Fire breaks out inside of Reichstag o Hitler tells Hindenburg that Bolsheviks are responsible for this  Wants him to use emergency powers  He does and signs emergency decree  Decree for the protection of the people of the state (name)  Suspends the majority of civil rights under the Weimar constitution  4000 arrested the day after fire  Communists and social democrats  Left parties  Beginning of terror campaign against the political enemies  Germany’s first concentration camps arise at this time  “Wild” Concentration Camps: the destruction of the political left o Literally basements where prisoners were kept o Another election called, unfair bc the left was in jail, bankrupt and uable to campaign o Not a free election o People we afraid to vote o Nazis receive highest percent ever  43.9% o Want 2/3 majority so they can change Weimar constitution  The enabling act rd o March 23 , 1933 o Pass it through newly elected parliament o Suspends Weimar constitution o Allows Nazis to rule by decree, and bypass constitution o Weimar constitution is no longer used, ends it o Suspension of WC allows for policies of persecution against jews  Anti-Semitic pstsecution begins o April 1 , 1933 o Nazis call for Nation wide boycott of Jewish owned businesses o Take away economic livelihoods and property o Social isolation and economic ruin o Became oppressed minority in their own homeland o Signs identifying owners were jewish o Jews not welcome in certain stores o Signs identifying German Merchants (Aryan) o Not successful at all  People did not do it  Rarely did people mark their own shop  People found it to be strange and alienating  Hitler tries a different tactic  Issues decrees  April 1933- law for the restoration of professional civil service o All Jews who worked as public employees lost their jobs o Racially pure civil service is going to be restored o Doctors, lawyers, professors would lose their jobs as well o Sweeping decree o Racial enemies were increasingly taken by SA and paraded through the street o Extensive amount of book burning o Memorial of book burning in Berlin  Books by non german authors  Political enemies  Students were some of more radical Nazis of this time  Book burning was popular in Universities  Hitler becomes Fuhrer o In july of 1933 Hitler declares Nazis party to be only legal party in Germany o He does keep parliament in order to keep appearance of popular support  Uses it extensively in 1936 olympics  Uses it as a stage for foreign policy declarations o August 1934- President Hindenburg dies o Hitler then assumes post of President  He molds chancellor, president together o Promptly does away with post as it is connected to the Weimar Republic o He gives himself new title of Fuhrer and Reichchancellor  He claims it is bc cannot
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