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Lecture 7

HIS317 Lecture Seven.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

November 9 , 2011 Germany “Year Zero”: Defeat, Occupation, Divsion, 1943-49  In 1942 Nazis are at the height of their power  The military tide turns o Stalingrad, feb 1943  Massind defeat that lives on in German nationalists memories  Feb 2 1943- military turning point in the war  Red army was advancing to Germany  1200 miles  Germany was coming under increasing attack o The bombing of German cities  1943 is the height of American and British air war (bombing campaign)  Aerial attack was new method of warfare  First used against the British by the Germans  60,000 brits killed by German bombings  Start with Lubeck in 1942  131 German cities are bombed in 1942-1944  Berlin was bombed 29 times  Cologne and Frankfurt 18 times  Hamburg 16 times  Number of cities in ruins  Strategy was to bomb the population  Working class areas were destroyed  Question of whether or not this constitutes war crimes  600,000 Germans killed by allied bombs  Operation Gemorra killed 35,000 in one night  Killed by bombs, fires, falling objects, suffocation  Warsaw was destroyed a lot worse than Germany  Images of devastation was common in all cities where bombed  Dresden and Hamburg have largest fire storm  Dresden bombed in feb 1945  City was full of refugees at this time  Largest question of war crimes  Fleeing toward west  Bombing was akin to bombing a hospital ship o The Red Army advances o D-Day in the west  June 6 , 1944  Allied landing on beaches of Normandy  Germany is going to be invaded from east and west after june 6h  In WWI Germany was not invaded, not the case in the second WW  Surrender is unconditional  Entire country is occupied  The Death Marches o January 23 1945 Red Army liberated Auschwitz  Only weak and sickest remains in the camp  Ruins all around  SS had cleared camp in anticipation for Red Army o Forced on death marches  Meant to kill as many people as possible  Deadlier than camp itself  Before soviets arrived 4200 shot and 98 000 forced on marches  If survived, put in other CC camps o The western camp expands  Those of death marches who survived were put into western CC  Population of Bergen-Belsen rose from beginning of 1945 bc of these marches o “Liberated but not free”  Placed in DP camps  In many cases the CC was turned into DP camps  Refugees and German POWs in same camp o The ethnic German expellees  Millions of ethnic Germans were fleeing from the Red Army  Christa Wolf, “Exchanging Glances”  Eleven million people fled RA  Most end up living in west germany after the war  Red army led to devastation in many places  Raping  Killing  The Battle of Berlin, April 1945 o RA reaches Berlin  Hitler has set out scorched earth policy, if Germany was to be
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