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HIS317 Lecture Six.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

November 2 nd The Second World War and the Holocaust  How does the war and the genocide fit together?  Holocaust as a European phenomenon  “All Germans in a Greater Germany” o Against Versailles o Remilitarizing the Rhineland o Anschluss with Austria  Hitler was largely supported in Austria  He was invited in  Zeyss-Inquart chancellor of Austria o Sudeten Germans  Hitler will set his sights on the Sudetenland after the Anschluss with Austria  Large germany minority in Czechoslovakia  Sudetenland is over 90% German  Majority in area, minority in state  Hitler is now pressing for annexation of Sudetenland  September 1938- Hitler, Mussolini and british PM and French Premier meet in munich to resolve this issue o Munich Conference 1938: Peace in our time  Essentially capitulate to Hitler’s demands and give him the land  Appeasement of Hitler  Appeasement of Hitler has brought peace in out time- chamberlain  Believed this would satisfy Hitler and save Czechoslovakia  Germany take Sudetenland and on march 1 1939 he takes it all o Kristallnacht: the “Night of Broken Glass”, November 9 , 1938  Nazis continue to policy of tyring to force Jews to emigrate  Polish born Jews- October 1938 expelled from germany and put into camp  Camps on polish border  One of relatives of people in camp kills German ambassador  Starts Kristallnacht, persecution of German and Austrian Jews o Nazis claim that this was popular outrage o But date stops any indication that this was sponstaneous  Kristallnacht is worse in Austria than in Germany  Shows that Nazis still believe they have some restraint in Germany towards Jews  Syangogues burnt to grounds  Following morning the Jews were rounded up an arrested  Jews collectively fined 1 billion as they were held responsible for violence against them  Point was to force Germany’s Jews to emigrate  By 1939 almost half of Germany’s Jews had emigrated  Large numbers did so after Kristallnacht  Goering told minister they are going to destroy the Jews, 1939  Pay for what they did on day of republic  November 9 1918 st o The Taking of Czechoslovakia, March 1 , 1939  Broken into pieces and taken off map  Slovakia is taken off as a separate puppet state o The Nazi Soviet Pact, August 22 , 1939  Hitler now sets his sight on Poland  This will bring Britain and France into war bc of treaties  Hitler is now thinking how he going to fight war on both sides  He wants to fight west first and then conquer France and go towards east  He turns toward Stalin  Anti- Aggression pact of august 1939  Hitler does not let ideology to stand in way of military strategy  Both sides gain  Divide Poland between the two of them  Germany is going to take polish corridor and more  Poland disappears from map again  Soviet take eastern border lands lost after 1918  Blitzkrieg o The attack on Poland, September 1 , 1939  War starts of with Blitzkrieg  Second world war starts with a massive invasion st  Sept 1 regarded as start of war  Poland is quickly overcome but puts forward good fight  Germany is pioneering a ne strategy where tanks are entering at same time as bombardment from air  Hitler claims he is acting in self defense  Stating that german troops had been fired upon on opposite side of border, and that ethnic germans were being killed  Poland lasts three weeks  At this point soviet troops cross over and take eastern borderlands  On September 3 and 4 Britain and France declare war on Germany  Internationally nothing is happening except in Poland  France and Britain not sure what to do  War is not wanted by civilians, not euphoric like last war o The War in the West  The attack on France: Occupation and Collaboration (Vichy)  France collapses quickly  Takes six weeks  British troops retreat  France negotiates an Armistice with Germany o North goes to Germany  Vichy France o South goes to Petain  The Battle of Britain  France defeat leave Britain alone  Hitler launches offensive (from air) on Britain, followed by entering on land o August air o September land  Churchill replaces Chemberlain  London is bombed every night, killing 15 000 civilians  Hitler does not follow through with land invasion  Turns toward soviet invasion o Lightning warfare is not as successful as Hitler wants it to be  Enter longer war  No decisive victory  Germany was not big enough to fight war against all the superpowers  Poland: Blessed Ground and Killing Field o The Polish Partition; Wartheland and the General Government o Plans for Colonization; The Reich Commissariat for the Strengthening Germandom  Poland was central to idea of Lebensraum  Poland becomes central ground for Holocaust  Clear territory and prepared for German settlement  Administration that does this is called the Reich Commissariat  Jews were to be put into Central Gvnt  All under Himmler  Plans for forced emigration and ghettoization of Jews  Poland  Resettlement of ethnic germans  Ukraine  Romania  Returning to Germany o Atrocities, ethnic cleansing, 1939-40  Quickly begin moving towrd Genocide  During resettlement Jews trea
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