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Lecture 3

HIS317 Lecture Three.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS317H1
Professor
Jennifer Jenkins
Semester
Fall

Description
th September. 28 , 2011 Democracy in a time of hyperinflation: the post war crisis, 1919-1923  The Two Declarations, November 9, 1918 o Scheiedemann  SPD were calling for peace talks  Against peace of annexations- only that peace would be stable  Get rid of Prussian three class system  Believes the defeat came from the high military officials, as they would not give up their demands and enter peace talks  Hindenborg- Germany’s defeat comes from the November Criminals  o Liebknecht  Uspd  Declaration is much more radical  Calls for a social and political revolution  The king is dead vs the king has abdicated  Reference to the 1848 revolution  Prussian king had to give into the revolutionary demands  Tying this revolution to that one  Talks about suffering of working people in Germany  Calling out image of ghosts who died of German ills  Thinks we must have a rupture, break with the past  Scheidemann talks of continuity o Prince Max Von Baden  Passes chancellorship to Ebert  Risen up through SPD from workers unions  November 1918 chancellor  Provisional gvnt- majority socialists and independent socialists  Lasts two months  How do you move men from being soldiers to workers? o Move from war time to peace time o What to do with all of weapons  Not enough food, people are starving  Ebert is focused on need for order o Does not want Bolshevik in Germany o He needs administrative continuity, to facilitate answers to enormous tasks facing German gvnt o Did not make any radical changes o An agreement is formed ZAG, national agreement between national industry and labor o Ebert will not reform the army, he needs them to institute policies  Wants to insure their loyalty o Does not reform civil and judiciary service o Blocks workers councils from decisions o Independent socialists are disgusted with Ebert, they leave gvnt (6 weeks)  The Spartacus League, a Soviet in Munich, the Freikorps o Open conflict now occurs within the two parties  Ebert brings in army to defeat revolution and Freikorps to stop league o Who are the Freikorps?  Militias  Paramilitaries  Initial concentration had been in the Baltic states  German troops still stationed in front after armistice, do not accept the war is over nor do they accept the republic  Deep anti-semitism in middle of Freikorps  See themselves as fighting bolshevism in Germany and Russia  They are volunteers  Fairly autonomous armies, group themselves around leader  Ehrhardt Brigade o 16 years when he had become a soldier o We have a civil war situation brewing in Germany o Ebert’s decision to bring in the Freikorps leaves a legacy of hatred between the two parties and they will never work together again  Bad bc if this hadn’t of happened could have easily prevented rise of Hitler o Rosa Luxemburg wanted universal democracy, and had a very different socialist belief than Lenin  International figure  She is head of radical wing o Luxemburg and Liebknecht were brutally murdered, abducted and then killed and thrown in river  Spree river, flows through Berlin  Bodies were not hidden  Mounted Rifle Korps  This shocked everyone o Set up of Munich Soviet, Munich becomes haven for far right wing parties  This is why Hitler chooses Munich for his headquarters and Beer Hall Putsch o July 19 , 1919- Germany goes to the Polls four days later  Liberal and democratic parties sweep everything, November leaders and parties  Center catholic party  SPD  Christian democratic party  USPD only gets 7%  Hindenborg’s party only gets 10.3% DVP  Sent to national assembly to write Weimar constitution th o Feb 6 th o On feb 11 , the national assembly elects Ebert as president and Scheidemann chancellor  Thought that radical parties would win bc of recent attacks, not true o Fighting ends just before peace talks  The Treaty of Versailles, June 1919 o Paris Pethe Conference o May 7 , 1919 presented to Germany, illusion that germany would be granted leniency bc of rece
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