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HIS317 Nov. 23rd, 2011.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

rd November 23 , 2011  Exam- three essays, set of 8 questions, three will be picked The Long Postwar: West and East Germany, 1948-1961/68  Amnesia and the economic miracle: west Germany in the 1950s o The zero hour  History started again  Democratic west german  Communist east german  Allied to the different superpowers o West German resurrection, the “raisin bombers” and the basic law  Denazification is scrapped in 1947-48 bc of Cold War  Decisions made that west germany was to be brought quickly to its feet to protect Europe from communism  Formation of west german state  Currency reform  NATO is founded in 1949  Barter economy- black market was extensive in germany after war  Currency wanted to change this  Stalin uses force now to severe west berlin from east berlin  Fully integrate it into east germany  Cutting off road, rail to city  Only way to get in from air  US supplies west berlin from the air for a year  Planes of US called raisin bombers, non military uses  Ernst Roiter thyor of west berlin  Sept 9 1948 makes speech in front of old german Reichstag  Draws international attention to blockaded city  Berlin was no longer Nazi capital, become symbol of free world, on border of communist enemy  Blockade lasts till may 1949  May 1949- joined west german state  October 1949- joined east german state  Constituion of west german was called Basic Law  Left door open for east and west reunification o The “economic miracle”  Rapid rebuilding  Very successful  Happening all of Europe, west and east  Marshall plan money- 1947-54 12 billion dollars  Period of sustained expansion  Industries that were successful- automobiles, raillinks, tv, radio, movies, synthetic materials, beauty and hygiene  In east germany expansion was industrial  In west germany expansion was consumer goods as well  Lasted through 1950s  Rationing of food ended in 1950  Full employment followed in 1950s  After 1960 labor shortage and guest workers were being brought in  Massive rebuilding of housing 1950s  Includes skyscrapers (10 stories tall)  Ludwig Erhard- finance minister 1949-63, brings into germany idea of social market economy or third way  Mixed economy  Acceptance of state as major economic owner but also private property  Across northern Europe  Konrad adenauer- first chancellor of west germany  1949-63 o Christian democracy and social democracy  Adenauer Founder of Christian democracy  Rebuilding of morals  Revival of political parties  SPD  KPD-briefly restablished, later outlawed  CDU- conservative party, old catholic center party  Nazism was an atheistic dictatorship, similar to communism  Firm foundation of anti-communism  Radical parties are outlawed or reorient themselves (SPD)  In 1959 the SPD leaves Marxist past formally behind, transforms itself into a peoples party, no longer workers party o An inability to mourn?  Economic recovery allowed them to leave the past behind  “Coming to terms with the past” – vergangheitsbewaltigung  This has a way of coloring what occurs after postwar period  Later generations believe that past was not come to terms with at
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