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HIS317H1 (43)


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Jennifer Jenkins

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20 Century Germany- HIS317 Lecture One- September. 14 , 2011  Germany unifies through a series of wars  Unified under Prussia  1870-1871  Bismarck as a symbol of Prussian militarism  Kaiser Wilhelm II leads germany in WWI o Abdicates in 1918  Streissman tried to reintegrate germany in the 1920s to Europe o What could have happened if he remained foreign minister o Died o Stock-market crash  Adenauer- first chancellor of west germany  Wall built in 1961 st Lecture Two- September, 21 , 2011 Defeat, Revolution, and the “stab in the back”: the Weimar Republic Begins  Germany and the First World War o The assassination of Austrian Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, june 28 , 1914  Sarajevo  Him and his wife  Habsburg monarchy  Killed by Bosnian serb nationalists  Serbia- “rogue state”  June 28 significant date  Killing unleashth diplomatth crisis o The july crisis (june 28 -august 4 , 1914)  Communication happened by letter, telegraph  French ministers were meeting with Russian allies, leave by boat and total different situation then when they left the boat  Ends with europe‟s alliance system being set in motions  Russia, france, Britain- triple entente  Germany, AH and Italy- axis powers  Could have been a regional conflict, but Serbia had ally in Russia and AH in Germany  Results in the blank cheque  Germany‟s support for Austria- Hungary, the „blank cheque‟  Unconditionally back Austria Hungary  Know full well than Russia will enter war on side of Serbia  Russian Czar gives order for mobilization, once they do this so does everyonthelse  By august 4 all have declared war on one another o The war in the west; the schlieffen plan (1905-1906) and the battle of Marne (september 1914)  Differs greatly from war in east  Trench warfare  Extremely costly in terms of men and money  Not a lot of movement  Move through Belgium to France- SPlan  Second part of SP not put into action bc the first part fails  Conquer northern France before French troops could get there (failed)  Problem bc you cannot just enter Belgium (against international law) o Invasion will bring GB into the war  SP stopped by French and British troops in Battle of Marne  Armies begin to dig in to ground  Trench building  Trench protects again machine gun fire  Trenches emerged in colonial warfare  Front lines that emerges in 1914 do not really change throughout the war o The war in the east: Tannenberg, the Masurian Lakes, the drive into Russian Poland  War of movement in the east  Move rapidly and take large swaths of territory  Russia  Germany‟s strategy was dictated by the Schlieffen plan  Germany appears to be moving toward its war aims o War aims: the “September Program” (1914), Germany‟s expansionist desires  War aims kept secret from population  Germany wanted Poland and Ukraine  Extensive war aims  September Memorandum- B-hollweig (chancellor of germany in 1909)  Outlined all their war aims  Not all parties participated in this  Christian party- peace without annexations o Social democratic party  Belgium was to become a subject state  Iron- ore of France to be annexed right away  Highly desired industrial area  Total war, 1916 o The move toward dictatorship, 1916  Military begins to take control of the government  Chancellor is silenced by generals  After B-Holleweig, series of chancellors who passively sit by  Luddendorf and Hindenburg o Two generals who rise to power in battle of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes o Heads of German General Staff o Hindenburg is Prussian Junker (old age, comes out of retirement to fight in war)  Fought in Franco-Prussian War in 1870 o Ludendorf is a middle class man  Ruthless military professional o Play crucial roles in war, also play important roles post-war o Hindenburg plays roles in getting hitler to power o Ludendorf is present in hitler‟s Beer-Hall Putsch o Total war- total mobilization of all of Germany‟s resources  Needs of the army of paramount importance, all needed for ends  Commerce was no longer stee, became restricted  Battle of Somme- july 1 , 1916  Started with 1 million artillery shells o Shows mass artillery needed for war „  Creation of centralized war economy  All non necessary economic activities shut down  Divided into military districts o Deal with issues of labor  Deportations of Belgium and Poles into Germany to work in German factories  Many war factory strikes occurred throughout period  German political parties forced to put aside differences for war effort  By 1916-17 this has come apart  Civil peace of august 1914 was wearing thin  Waves of riots and strikes  People were hungry o Turnip winter of 1916-17  People were tramatized by massive bloodloss of the war  Enthusiasm of war had ceased o Almost every family had lost someone o Mostly young men o Half the soldiers destroyed in combat were beyond recognition o People did not have anything to bury  Civilian protest builds for months  Nearing revolution  Spurred by lack of food  Women at front and center of food protests  Women becoming more center at industrial life  Large percent of workforce is women  May 1 , 1916- war, food and peace protest o Liebknetch  After he is arrested thousands in factories go on strike in protest  April 1917- reduced bread rations announced, 300 000 go on strike o Spread to other industrial cities  January 1918- largest strike o 400 000 metal workers o Spread and in the end 1 million on strike o Army arrests leaders of strike and sends them to the front  Creation of new political parties  SPD splits into two parties o Moderate and Radical o Reformist party vote to continue o Independent party (USPD) will become the German Communist Party  Fatherland Party- Ludendorf at head o Far right party- 1917 o Extreme nationalism o Von Tirtipz involved as well  End of the war, 1918 o Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  March 1918  Separate peace German signs with Bolshevik Russia  War had been won in the east- Germany claims  Summer of 1918, Germans thought the war had been successful in the east  Gives German all of Russia‟s western borderlands  Gave Germany 32% of russia‟s agricultural land  34% of Russian population went to Germany  54% of industry o Prepared for Ludendorf offensive  Turn toward the west due to win in east  Met a renewed force of France, failed  Did same with Britain, failed as well  Germany is exhausted  Allies strengthened by US troops and resources th  August 8 1918- brthk through of German lines  By September 29 - making way to Germany  Soldiers begin to desert front lines  Germany seeks armistice under 14 points  Woodrow Wilson o Prince Max Von Baden  October Reforms  Allies would not discuss peace reforms with a military gvnt  Scramble to set up new gvnt  Want to make Germany Constitutional monarchy  Run into problems with Hindenburg and Ludendorf  Army wants to put blame on civilian gvnt  Germany was not defeated on field, but through lack of effort at home o Stabbed in the back by socialists, women and Jews in gvnt o German gvnt had sold out fighting forces o Lie  Civilian gvnt now in charge of military  Monarchy could have been saved if Kaiser had abdicated and given reform o Popular revolution  November 1918  Naval battle was ordered, suicide mission- refused  Mutiny  Sailors joined with labor unions and take over city of Kiel  Passes quickly to other German towns, mass movement reaches Berlin th o November 9 , 1918 o Kaiser abdicates o Republic declared- twice  Socialist declared republic  Spartacist league also declares republic o Frederich Ebert- first president (chancellor as well?) of Weimar republic (interim)  Could he have done something differently?  Weimar republic broke the privileges of the aristocracy as well as power o End of the monarchy o Born in conditions of great problems o Comes at the end of the war o Process of constitutional reform o Revolution and civil war (1918-19) o Burdened from the start th September. 28 , 2011 Democracy in a time of hyperinflation: the post war crisis, 1919-1923  The Two Declarations, November 9, 1918 o Scheiedemann  SPD were calling for peace talks  Against peace of annexations- only that peace would be stable  Get rid of Prussian three class system  Believes the defeat came from the high military officials, as they would not give up their demands and enter peace talks  Hindenborg- Germany‟s defeat comes from the November Criminals  o Liebknecht  Uspd  Declaration is much more radical  Calls for a social and political revolution  The king is dead vs the king has abdicated  Reference to the 1848 revolution  Prussian king had to give into the revolutionary demands  Tying this revolution to that one  Talks about suffering of working people in Germany  Calling out image of ghosts who died of German ills  Thinks we must have a rupture, break with the past  Scheidemann talks of continuity o Prince Max Von Baden  Passes chancellorship to Ebert  Risen up through SPD from workers unions  November 1918 chancellor  Provisional gvnt- majority socialists and independent socialists  Lasts two months  How do you move men from being soldiers to workers? o Move from war time to peace time o What to do with all of weapons  Not enough food, people are starving  Ebert is focused on need for order o Does not want Bolshevik in Germany o He needs administrative continuity, to facilitate answers to enormous tasks facing German gvnt o Did not make any radical changes o An agreement is formed ZAG, national agreement between national industry and labor o Ebert will not reform the army, he needs them to institute policies  Wants to insure their loyalty o Does not reform civil and judiciary service o Blocks workers councils from decisions o Independent socialists are disgusted with Ebert, they leave gvnt (6 weeks)  The Spartacus League, a Soviet in Munich, the Freikorps o Open conflict now occurs within the two parties  Ebert brings in army to defeat revolution and Freikorps to stop league o Who are the Freikorps?  Militias  Paramilitaries  Initial concentration had been in the Baltic states  German troops still stationed in front after armistice, do not accept the war is over nor do they accept the republic  Deep anti-semitism in middle of Freikorps  See themselves as fighting bolshevism in Germany and Russia  They are volunteers  Fairly autonomous armies, group themselves around leader  Ehrhardt Brigade o 16 years when he had become a soldier o We have a civil war situation brewing in Germany o Ebert‟s decision to bring in the Freikorps leaves a legacy of hatred between the two parties and they will never work together again  Bad bc if this hadn‟t of happened could have easily prevented rise of Hitler o Rosa Luxemburg wanted universal democracy, and had a very different socialist belief than Lenin  International figure  She is head of radical wing o Luxemburg and Liebknecht were brutally murdered, abducted and then killed and thrown in river  Spree river, flows through Berlin  Bodies were not hidden  Mounted Rifle Korps  This shocked everyone o Set up of Munich Soviet, Munich becomes haven for far right wing parties  This is why Hitler chooses Munich for his headquarters and Beer thll Putsch o July 19 , 1919- Germany goes to the Polls four days later  Liberal and democratic parties sweep everything, November leaders and parties  Center catholic party  SPD  Christian democratic party  USPD only gets 7%  Hindenborg‟s party only gets 10.3% DVP  Sent to national assembly to write Weimar constitution o Feb 6 th th o On feb 11 , the national assembly elects Ebert as president and Scheidemann chancellor  Thought that radical parties would win bc of recent attacks, not true o Fighting ends just before peace talks  The Treaty of Versailles, June 1919 o Paris Peace Conference o May 7 , 1919 presented to Germany, illusion that germany would be granted leniency bc of recent moves for democracy  Conditions shocked Germany  Thought 14 points were leading factors in treaty  From right to left there was rejections of the treaty  Problems with war guilt clause (germany alone was responsible for WWI and they would pay for the war)  As well as reparations th o Submit request for revision- may 29  Nothing will be revised  If delegation does not sign the threat of future military actions against Germany  German delegation cannot stand thought of more war th  They sign- june 28 , 1919 o In hall of mirrors in Versailles o Territorial loses  Alsace- lorraine to France *taken in Franco Prussian war  West-Prussia and Posen now becomes territory of new polish state  Polish corridor  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is annulled  Lots of fury regarding lost territory in the east  Germany loses colonial empire o Reparations  33 billion dollars  Put under control of international reparations committee  Humiliating  No Germans on council  Army is reduced to 100 000 men  German navy and air force is forbidden  Mocked argument that war had brought political positives  Gave people cause to rally against  The Kapp Putsch, March 1920 o Republic is under attack from own citizens o One of fathers of fatherland party  Looks like Nazi party in its ideology  All about Germany‟s internal enemies o Leaders were Kapp and Ludendorff o March on Berlin o Assembling forces since July, right after signing of treaty o Freikorp members and others o Freikorp forces march on berlin, capture parliament buildings  Declare Kapp chancellor  Army refuses to intervene on either side  Freikorp forces surround other towns in germany o Putsch is stopped after five days, bc of general strike  Massive passive resistance  Kapp flees to Sweden o General civilian resistance o Only place Putsch succeeds in Bavaria  The Republic attacked from left and right o Lose majority in parliament- june 1920  Over 70% becomes 43% o Lose seats to anti-republicans  Hindenborgs party gains status  Rise of communist party o Over 84% vote o Move to extreme left and right o Freikorps begin to mix with army  Head of German army is skeszt (?) o Army is loyal to german state not the republic o Freikorp are reeking havoc, rise of workers self defense squad  Ruhr  Two sides fighting each other until 1923-24  Called red army in ruhr o Right wing groups are growing  Ehrhardt becomes the OC o Political assassinations come from right  In 1922 greatest success, assassinated walter Rathenau  Head of German general electric company  Grman Jew, Homosexual  Symbol of the November criminal  Killed by OC in broad daylight as driving to work  Essential to reparations discussions, they do not continue after his death  Murder deeply shocks german nation, given state funeral  After murder, political kilings flourish o Out of 376 murders, 22 had been by left and rst from right o Murders go unpunished  The occupation of the Ruhr o Prints money to pay for the war, does not raise taxes o By 1918 money has declined by half value o Ebert decides to keep cheap money, bc needs it for costs of demobilizing men and moving economy to peace time footing o Mark deflates further o Trying to keep population at full employment o By 1919 market loses 50% o Accused of doing this on purpose so they would not have to pay reparations o By decemeber 1922 German gvnt is in default  341% inflations  French gvnt Poincare accuses them of violating treaty, and French troops march on ruhr  Begin to gather coal from land  French and Belgium occupation o Currency is broken and goes into freefall o Passive resistance, still paid benefits but no work being done o German mark collapses- hyperinflation  Hyperinflation o People literally use money to burn o Money worth nothing, paper more valuable o People lose confidence in the republic o Hard on anyone who had savings  Became worthless o People living on fixed incomes (bad for them also) o National and moral collapse o US steps in and takes control of german economy and reparations o Model of American business travels to germany o New currency develops  The “New Woman” of Weimar: the photomontage of Hanna Hoch October 5 , 2011 The Rise of the NSDAP 1919-1933  A party is founded, 1919-1920 o German Workers Party o Hitler becomes a formal member of the group o Sets out the 25 points, wants it to be the party platform  1920  Will appear in test! o February 1920- Nazi party is born o New thinking of Germany as a racial entity  German –Jews are not German  Under alien legislation  Debate over who is a racial comrade o At the beginning more club than party o Anti-establishment o Thinks of itself as a movement, one of many throughout Germany o October 1923- Communist attack on Hamburg  Ernst Thalmann  Hitler‟s March on Munich: the Beer-Hall Putsch, November 9, 1923 o Communist attack in north o Nazis attacking in south o Hitler and Ludendorff planned for armed takeover of city  Planned it from Mussolini‟s March on Rome o Why not Berlin?  Munich is a haven for the far right, since Kapp Putsch o Army units in place declared disloyalty to the Weimar republic o Hitler marches on the beer-hall with Brown Shirts  SA  Declare Bavarian gvnt to be disposed, they are new gvnt o Hitler and Ludendorff are arrested as they are met by police o Given sentence of 5 years, but only serves a year o Republic does not fall, the economy is revived (somewhat) by loans from the US (Dawes Plan)  Begin to rely heavily on US loans  US takes lead on restructuring reparations  Ushers in period of relative stability  The Path of Legality o Hitler emerges from prison in 1924 o He is now a national martyr o He has new strategy for taking over power o Nazi party was outlawed after Beer-Hall Putsch o Nazis as a movement ends, and Nazis as a party begin o He must now takeover state from inside as opposed to from outside revolution o With party base they are going to enter local, regional elections  Building a Mass Party o Hitler starts in the countryside  Why?  German is not urban country we know now, it was largely agrarian  Countryside is particularly politically volatile  Much upset, very disgruntled  Grip of intense depression  People were more receptive to radical political ideas  Begin forming local group o 5-10 people o Mainly men between ages of 25-40 o Large numbers of policemen, shopkeepers  What do groups do? o Send speakers o Get name out in community o Sell tickets and have someone cme from a larger party cell o Advertised themes o Growing a sophisticated organizational structure o Good at publicity and promotion  Nazis are a party of the young  Play on people‟s fears  Economic anxieties  Economic desperation o Connect it with international enemies  Bolsheviks  British  French  US  Especially Jews  Working to destroy Germany  Thought to be leading to the rebirth of Germany o In the early days success was modest at best, Hitler‟s dream of a mass party was not achieved o In 1928 the Nazis only receive 2.5 % of the vote  However it is a breakthrough onto the national scene o Portrayed themselves as young, dynamic and new  The Ideology of the NSDAP  The Breakthrough of 1928  Political consequences of the Great Depression, 1929  Chancellor Heinrich Bruning and the Presidental Cabinets, 1930-1933 o Parliamentary democracy is somewhat over in 1930  It is bc of Article 48  Hindenburg can now act as a king and use the army internally  Under artcle 48 Hindenburg puts together presidential cabinet under Bruning o Bruning puts forward budget, SPD does not support it  Cycle of elections in 1930-33, that the Nazis profit from  Bruning trying to get his legislation past, so he keeps on dissolving parliament until he gets result he wants  It is under article 48 that he can do this  Germany no longer has a working legislator  1930- 18% of vote, 6 million votes  Political life no becomes completely unhinged  The Year 1932 o Unemployment is on the rise in 1932, young men  Joining fighting organizations, street battles become commonplace  Nazis present themselves as the only one who can solve the problems of Germany o Economic crisis deepening, banks failing o Elections for President  Thalmann  Hitler  Hindenburg  In the first round a candidate must get 50% of vote  Does not happen  Go into second round  Between Hitler and Hindenburg o In summer of 1932 reparation payments stopped and they are in economic crisis o Another election is called (July 1932)  Bruning loses power and Von Papen comes to power  Schlicher comes after  Nazi party gets highest percent of votes, 37%  After November elections Nazi party has already begun to fall in the votes o 500 street brawls in summer of 1932  Hindenburg and Hitler th o Hitler is appointed as chancellor in July 30 , 1933 o Some could say that his movement had already reached its peak o Feel country is on brink of revolution, fear of communist revolution  Bring Nazis in bid of presidential cabinets  Hitler is going to surprise them  Moves very fast  Abolish Weimar republic, so he is able to create own dictatorship  Use of article 48 for this  Adolf Hitler as German Chancellor, January 30, 1933 o Hitler is never popularly elected o Loses race for president o Never has absolute majority  Rigged march 1933 election only got 43.9% of vote o Political life is rapidly changing o Hitler uses the Reichstag fire as way to scare of imminent communist takeover  Tells Hindenburg of need for Article 48  Suspension of civil rights  Mass arrests  Stoppage of SPD and KPD  This is barely a month before he comes chancellors  Topics on the website are approved topics, meant as suggestions  Map out area to go from th October 19 , 2011 The Racial State, 1933-1939  The Seizure of Power (machtergreifung), 1933-34 o 1934- makes himself Fuhrer and Reichchancellor o Jan 30 1933- hitler is appointed as chancellor of the Weimar Republic  Weimar Republic still active at this point  Ceremony as way to legitimize Hitler  International press treats this appointment fairly lightly  Had seen him as a passing chancellor  Thought he would last two months and then someone else  Internationally still unknown  Quickly shows he is different, giant steps in consolidating rule and seize power  Clear about destroying treaty of Versailles  Germany was going to expand territorially outside its borders  That would mean war  Desire to build land empire in eastern Europe o Lebensram o Territories would be cleansed of jewish and Slavic populations  Made clear opinions on Jews  He was not secretive of his plans, very vocal  In order to make this plans happen, he need to be at center of state  He still has limited power in 1933  He moves to consolidate power  Three ways o Laws under article 48, emergency powers  Suspend civil rights in germany  He will begin to move with great violence against his political enemies  Feb –june 1933  The emergency decrees: the Reichstag fire, feb 27, 1933 o Start of Hitler‟s power grab o Fire breaks out inside of Reichstag o Hitler tells Hindenburg that Bolsheviks are responsible for this  Wants him to use emergency powers  He does and signs emergency decree  Decree for the protection of the people of the state (name)  Suspends the majority of civil rights under the Weimar constitution  4000 arrested the day after fire  Communists and social democrats  Left parties  Beginning of terror campaign against the political enemies  Germany‟s first concentration camps arise at this time  “Wild” Concentration Camps: the destruction of the political left o Literally basements where prisoners were kept o Another election called, unfair bc the left was in jail, bankrupt and uable to campaign o Not a free election o People we afraid to vote o Nazis receive highest percent ever  43.9% o Want 2/3 majority so they can change Weimar constitution  The enabling act o March 23 , 1933 o Pass it through newly elected parliament o Suspends Weimar constitution o Allows Nazis to rule by decree, and bypass constitution o Weimar constitution is no longer used, ends it o Suspension of WC allows for policies of persecution against jews  Anti-Semitic persecution begins o April 1 , 1933 o Nazis call for Nation wide boycott of Jewish owned businesses o Take away economic livelihoods and property o Social isolation and economic ruin o Became oppressed minority in their own homeland o Signs identifying owners were jewish o Jews not welcome in certain stores o Signs identifying German Merchants (Aryan) o Not successful at all  People did not do it  Rarely did people mark their own shop  People found it to be strange and alienating  Hitler tries a different tactic  Issues decrees  April 1933- law for the restoration of professional civil service o All Jews who worked as public employees lost their jobs o Racially pure civil service is going to be restored o Doctors, lawyers, professors would lose their jobs as well o Sweeping decree o Racial enemies were increasingly taken by SA and paraded through the street o Extensive amount of book burning o Memorial of book burning in Berlin  Books by non german authors  Political enemies  Students were some of more radical Nazis of this time  Book burning was popular in Universities  Hitler becomes Fuhrer o In july of 1933 Hitler declares Nazis party to be only legal party in Germany o He does keep parliament in order to keep appearance of popular support  Uses it extensively in 1936 olympics  Uses it as a stage for foreign policy declarations o August 1934- President Hindenburg dies o Hitler then assumes post of President  He molds chancellor, president together o Promptly does away with post as it is connected to the Weimar Republic o He gives himself new title of Fuhrer and Reichchancellor  He claims it is bc cannot take place of hindenburg  Actually so he can create a new position with no restrictions on his power  Total and complete control of power  Has no boundaries  Strengthening the army: the night of the long knives o The SA was over one million people and radical o They wanted another social revolution o Hitler drew line with SA, did not approve of their radical ideas o Spring and summer of 1934  Angry with hitler for not bringing their leaders in power  Tension between army and SA  Many of SA had been there from the beginning o Deals with SA inthrutal fashion  June 30 , 1934  Murder of all SA leaders  Attacked in their homes, lined up and shot by SS o Hitler had no interest in a social revolution o Army had own interest in getting rid of SA  Provide weapons  Transportation  Did not directly kill SA o Army must take oath to Hitler  Unconditional loyalty to Fuhrer even in case of illegal actions  Many thought this went to far and left army  Head of army leaves  Hindenburg dies and office of the Fuhrer created o End effect of night of long knives  Strengthen army  Bring it further under Hitler‟s control  The Nuremberg laws o 1935 o Racial laws o Define who is Jewish o Regulate jews to second class citizens, set out laws that forbid Jews from interacting with non-jews o People must think of race when making decisions of life partner  Racial background is important to think about o Children were taught to look at other people in terms of race  Germanic race as superior and highest race o Racial policy affects the population in different ways  Aryan  Jews  Lesser race o Core of all this is anti-semitism o The Eternal Jew  193(?)  Pictures  The racial state o Who are the racial enemies?  At the top were the Jews  Slavs  Polish  Gypsies  Mentally ill  Those with chronic diseases  Alcoholics  Asocials  Non conformists o Law for the prevention of hereditary  Sterilization of people without their consent o Gleich…..- marching in line  Nazification  Invaded all aspects of life  Ex. If in bowling club certain percent of people had to be members of Nazi party  Chess clubs, book clubs  Gau- administrative unit  Appoint Nazi governors  Labor is also Nazified  Trade unions o Germany‟s jews were subjugated in many aspects of life  Public places  Ex. Swimming pools  This does not mean that everyone goes along with it  Fear and violence was not used on everyone  Strong core of support o Industry was not brought into line  Aryanization of property  Heads of businesses if classified as Aryan, did not have to be Nazi party members  Against Versailles o In feb 1933- hitler revealed his intent to rearm Germany  Speech to army  Believes he cannot be too radical and unleash war before Germany is ready for it  Testing to see what he can do before intervantion from Britian, France and the US o Withdraws Germany from league of nations, and leaves rearmament commission  Oct 193(?) o Germany will be rearmed and ready to go to war in four years time- 1936 o Rearmament as ways ot get people working o In 1936 Hitler dismantles a major pilar of the
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