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HIS331H1 (2)
Lecture 5

HIS331H1 Lecture 5: lecture 5

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Juri Kivimae

cultural revolution ● enthusiasm and optimism, building up new nation states, ● specific features of culutral life: natioalism patriotism and multicuralism ● linguistic turn" native languaged became official state languages and academic languages ● late modernization ● orientation away from russia ● more universities opening baltic minoritieis ● protective legislation ● education in mother tongue religious freedom ● jews, poles, russians, germans largest groups but nevertheless lithuania 1923: 84% latvia (1920) 80% estonia (20): 87% of each native ethnic population small parties that were nationalist parties could often have a large influence on how things took place large percent of jews in lithuania, in latvia it was russians, in estonia it was russian many of the russians were in the baltic states because they did not support the Soviet Union many people wanted to go into the Soviet Union latvians in ussr 140 thousand in 1936 many were purged in the great terror (1937-8) "mass operations" op # 00447- "the national operation" - "the latvian operation" nov 30 1987: 25,000 latvians arrested all of them, 74% sentences to death baltic foreign policy in the 20's ● relevant guarentees: fixing state boundaries and avoiding immanent threat of war ● opening path to the international recognition of the baltic states ● peace treaties with societ russia (all 3 in 1920) ● 22 set 1921 the baltic states became members of the League of Nations ● some say lenin did these treaties for some stability and focus on civil wars within ukraine and belarussia ● baltic union, filnand estonia latvia and poland signed in warsaw in 1922- not ratified by finnish parliament ● no lithuaia because of issues of poland and territory fights ● baltic entente- defense inion between estonia and latvia- 1923 lith. joined in 1934 (not a very relevant entenete) ● problem of the ussr ● peaces treates ● historical legacy of russian empire ● stalin: marxism and the national question ● dreams of world revolution belief that violence was necessar to create a better world order ● participation in baltic punlic life of interwar regimes to be punished later as bourgeois nationalists eg airzsargi- paramilitary organization airzsargi ● formed in 1919 to fight against bandistism ● '38 35000 men and 7 thou women about 3.6 of population of LV ● voluntary unpaid forced ● armed ● mostly veterans of independence war ● similar organizations: kaitseliit (ee) sauliu sajunga (lt) ● theklaipeda memel question ● paris peace conference- klaipeda under the jurisdiction of french occupational forces ● ethnic lithuanian population calls to reunite them with lithuania ● 10 jan 1923 lithuania seixed klaipeda (excepted by germany for now) communist coup attempt in tallin '24 conducted by comintern on dec 1 '24 staged by estonian communist from russia 279 insurgests 125 killed 500 arrested comintern stands for communist international (1919) aim to fight by all means to overthrough bourgeoisie why? permanent revoltion - trotsky , always have to engage in violence until everyone was communist dissolved by joseph stalin 1943 interwar baltic gov ● initially democratic republics ● constittuions multi party systems ● strong left wing impact (land reform, etc) ● nationalistic but minority parties did exist and often were deciding favtor in coalitions problems with new system ● major instability, too many parties ● in lv in 1920s there were over 400 ● coalitions ● short
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