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HIS331H1 (2)
Lecture 2

HIS331H1 Lecture 2: lecture 2

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Juri Kivimae

HIS 331 – Modern Baltic History LECTURE 2: January 15, 2014 Revolution and War in the Baltic, 1900 – 1918 (I) (Required Readings:Andres Kasekamp, AHistory of the Baltic States. Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, pp. 68- 94; Georg von Rauch, The Baltic States: The Years of Independence. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania 1917- 1940. London: C. Hurst, 1974, pp. 1-39) The 1905 Revolution in the Baltic Provinces whats the chronology? helps memorize the events,but means nothing in nature we beging modern baltic history during this period watershed from russian empire and baltic provinces 1905 – The First Russian Revolution; actually 1905 –1907. the aftermath of the russian revolution is now chaning european history meaning of the russian revolution, the proletariat against the borgeousie and the existing order is overthrown upper classes are not able to rule as they did before, and in this class conflict it exploded the situation ● understanding of an absolute monarch -nicholas ii ● next to him was the nobility who had lots of privelleges ● increasing beacracy ● russian army were kossak peasants, many were illiterate ● 1901-1903 economic crisis damaged russian expansion ● just after the economic crisis tsar nicholas new he had to do something to change and boost moral ● decided to make war against japan ● the conflict was based on an expantionist idea towards the east ● strategic positions on harbors on korean shores ● korea was not just korea and was under interest of japan ● battlefields were in manchura and korea ● nicholas was a weak character ● russia sent out a lot of infantry and navy ● battle of tsushima may 27-28 1905 ● in february- march in korea the russian infantry was defeated heavily ● in the battle of tsushima, 2nd fleet of russian navy was completely destroyed ● killed thousands lost ships ● the idea of having a real victorious war ended in catastrophe in the baltic provinces, the younger officers werer recruited as well ● around 8 thousand men from estonia were recruited ● war ended in peace treaty and japan was victorious ● they got southern part of russia Sa halin ● pretext to world war ● Stagnation of the imperial order under Nicholas II; - main reason they suggested was the reason of the russian revolution ● Bureaucracy and reforms ● Russo-Japanese War 1904 – 1905: Russian army defeated ● Revolutionary situation in Russia ● 9 January 1905 – “Bloody Sunday” -in st petersburg peaceful demonstation petition to tsar gunned down by the imperial guard ● why? provocation by father gapon secret agent of ohranka ● tensions were already so high ● ohranka is the secret police ● october manifesto ● 17 of october - tsars manifesto granted civil liberties to the people including personal immunity freedom of religion freedom of speech and assemble and association- a broad participation in the duma (russian parliament) ● freedom of speech and assembly was given a big helping hand to russian gender history and feminism -essay topics ● opening of the first state duma 1906 Baltic Provinces – Estland, Livland, Kurland The socio-economic condition of the Baltic provinces on the eve of 1905 Revolution: Russian Imperial rule, Baltic German hegemony, and Modernization. The role and meaning of 1905 Revolution for the Baltic provinces has different explanations in historiography (a reflection/component of the Russian revolution; separate ‘freedom’movement, new phase of the national movement). ● the role and meaning of the 1905 rev for the baltic proncinces ● russian imperial rule baltic german hegemony and modernization- inside russian empire but under german self government ● different explations in historiography ● main question: national movement or political movement? ● ritterschaft is a corporation of nobleman who have been registered ● noble families outside of that register were not under this self government ● perhaps baltic provinces had some autonomy? - proff disagrees ● before the opening of the duma there was a published constitution in russia in 1906 as well ● "the grand dutchy of finland, while is inseperable part of russian state is governed by internal affairs" the only extention here of autonomy. only finland ● the tensions in russia as economic development- some areas developed some not at all ● unsolved land problems -modernization causing problems and tensions Latvia – (southern part of Livland + Kurland) Increasing weight of Latvians in socioeconomic and cultural life: nationalism and radicals. The jaunā strāva (‘new current’or ‘new wave’) movement among the young generation of Latvian intelligentsia; newspaper Dienas Lapa (Daily Paper); leaders: poet Jānis Rainis (1865–1929), writer Peteris Stučka (1865–1932). The Baltic German baronial regime in the countryside. Social Democratic and Marxist ideas influenced the workers and young intellectuals. ● latvians nationalism and radicals ● their sense of identity is becoming stronger ● common understanding of who are the latvians ● nationalist ideas and movement are in a very deep connection of socialist ideas ● generation reading karl marx and neitche ● netiche underlines individual and marx is thinking of how class society is exploiting the individual ● the jauna strava leftist social and political movement among the latvian intelligentsia since 1886 ● similar to the "young" movements - new ideology and phenomena with new news papers and leaders ● rainis - greatest latvian writer leader of the new current movement ● batlic german baronial regime in the countryside 1903 – Latvian Social Democratic Association 1904 – Latvian Social Democratic Workers’Party (2 400 members) Revolution 12 Jan. 1905 – General Strike in Riga (c. 316,000 participated in the strikes in 1905) 13th jan riga bloodshed 73 killed 200 injured March-April 1905 – Military alert in Livland and Kurland 19 Nov. 1905 –All-Latvian Congress in Riga (c. 900 delegates; demanding autonomy, not independence) Peasant unrest – the land question and social democratic agitation, revolutionaries in the villages 1905 – 316,000 participants in strikes (Livland and Kurland) Nov. - Dec. – 183 estates and 72 manorial residences destroyed in Livland, 229 and 42 in Kurland. Nov. - Dec. – punitive expeditions (Russian military and Baltic G
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