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HIS343 Lec 2-5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Peter King

HIS343 Lecture 5 - 2/5/13 ● Israeli intelligence - Israel created in 1948 - the Mossad is one of the most famous intelligence groups, along with the CIA, MI6, and the KGB ● intelligence played a role in formation of Israeli government - government and intelligence goes hand-in-hand - uses all forms of intelligence, especially human int ● Israeli intelligence community: Shin Bet (domestic intelligence agency, like FBI), the Mossad (foreign intelligence), and AMAN (military intelligence) ● Yom Kippur War (known as the 4th war) - Egypt and Syria attacking Israel (October 1973) - Egypt movies in at Suez Canal, Syria at the Golan Heights - Israel was caught off guard but launched a counter-attack and succeeded in pushing the armies back - ● October 1973 - almost leads to a superpower confrontation between US and Soviet Union - US supports Israel and Soviet supports Syria and Egypt ● cease-fire is in late October right after Israel enters Egypt ● Egyptians move from being Soviet ally to American ally and Egyptians formally make peace with Israel a few years later ● starts off as a crisis, but becomes an opportunity for Israel and Egypt to fix relationship ● case study because classic surprise attack on Israel - main intelligence failure, analyzed similar to the intelligence failure of 9/11 ● AMAN failed to provide a timely warning despite having inkling that Egypt was going to attack - problem with assessing information ● 1947 UN Partition Plan - formation of the Israeli state - 2 states formed in Palestine, Arab state and Jewish state - civil war breaks out between 2 states ● May 1948 - formally declare Israel independence - now lines of separation between the 2 states, and Gaza strip is occupied by Egypt ● 1950s state of no-war no-peace continues ● cout in Egyptian monarchy with Gamal Nasser, Nasser becomes pan-Arab hero and Soviet ally - Palestinian raiders from Gaza Strip into Israel ● Nasser decides to nationalize Suez Canal Company ● 1956 Suez War - as a response to Egypt nationalization of SCC, France, England, and Israel team up against Egypt (France thinks Nasser is supporting Algerian rebels) ● US team up with Soviets to demand they withdraw from Egypt (Eisenhower feels humiliated by his usual allies of France and Britain) ● UN decision to place peace-keeping army near Egyptian-Israeli border ● Nasser is supposed to be pan-Arab leader against Israel but looks weak; to increase his power he tells UN army to leave ● June 1967 - Nasser declares no Israeli ships into Straits of Tehran (leads to Gulf of Elat) - war move, Egypt mobilizes forces - 6 Day War of 1967 ● Israel launches preemptive attack against Syria and Egypt (US advice) - leads to Israeli control over key territories (entire Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, and Golan Heights, as well as West Bank where Jerusalem is) ● declare they won’t withdraw until Egypt/Syria make peace ● by 1970-71 - there are raids on either side of the Suez Canal by Israel and Egypt ● 1970 - Nasser dies, Anwar Sadat emerges as leader - rules till 1981 (assassinated) ● Sadat turns to US as mediator, hopes they will force Israel to communicate ● Mossad agents warned of the attacks of the joint Syrian/Egyptian forces in 1973 ● head of Mossad estimated in 1973 that the enemy forces were capable of war ● analytical phase failed, rather than the collection of information phase ● 6 Day War had created sense of confidence of strategic position among the Arab states - thought the Suez Canal on the Israeli side was impenetrable - belief that Arab forces were inferior ● Sadat expelled Soviet army adv
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