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Canada (508,922)
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HIS344Y1 (120)
Ebba Kurt (12)
Lecture

Lec 4

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Department
History
Course
HIS344Y1
Professor
Ebba Kurt
Semester
Fall

Description
• USSR wanted a united Germany to better extract economic recuperation • no unified Germany, agricultural east belonging to Soviet Union, the rich industrialized and potentially very powerful west controlled by the Western powers • May 1946 -Americans terminated economic aid to Western Germany because USSR would not feed the west Germans with agriculture of east Germany • elections in Germany - great losses for the United Party (communists), completely dashing hopes of USSR, did not see the advantages of belonging to the eastern bloc ◦ did not Stalin-ize east Germany, saw a complete defeat of the communist party • Moscow's fear was always that if Germany was able to regain pre-war economic status would become a menace against the USSR who was economically weak still from WWII ◦ did not allow free elections in east Germany • October 1947 – Americans so hell-bent on holding onto their own part of divided Germany that there would be no basis of any compromise with the Soviets ◦ wanted to keep Germany divided – ongoing negotiations between British andAmericans to unite their zones and create bi-zonia ◦ Marshall plan was already in action, European economic recovery would never happen without German economic recovery – under no circumstances would they accept any Soviet concession ◦ Molotov - “whatever happens to Berlin happens to Germany, whatever happens to Germany happens to Europe” ▪ i.e. if Berlin is divided, so is Germany divided, and so is Europe divided ◦ two more efforts to settle the issue – Moscow Consul of Foreign Ministers and another in London at the end of the year ▪ at Moscow, would have agreed to have a unified Germany under theAllies treated as a single economic unit, allow a Weimar Republic-like government set up ▪ Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan in effect in Europe, no way thatAmericans would back down – would rather uphold West Germany and secure Western interests • economic recuperation of western Europe with West Germany • economic growth of Europe through west Germany • last consul of foreign ministers, Russians made one more effort to settle the issue – but now this is much too late, Tri-zonia established by uniting GB, French andAmerican zones ◦ would not accept any Russian concession ◦ Russians were so outraged they committed one of the greatest diplomatic blunders – stormed out from the meetings as if the meeting would not continue without their presence ▪ of course this was not the case, Tri-Zonia was created, Western powers went a step further and tried to make Tri-Zonia a viable state by introducing the Deutchmark as the currency of West Germany • at this point Russians had to retaliate, stop the Western powers from uniting West Germany and bring the West back to the negotiation table ◦ two-pronged approach – coercion and negotiation ▪ Western officials prohibited from visiting West Berlin ▪ approached French with their vision of how to divide Germany to make it weak (French always terrified of a united and strong Germany), would support French vision ◦ reparations, reopening issue of borders of Russia/Poland/East Germany • at this pointAmericans were so convinced that this was the correct policy that they would not budge, French did not want to back down since Marshall Plan was providing so much more aid than they would ever be able to extricate from West Germany • USSR took one of the most consequential decisions – sealing out West Berlin, prevent transport etc.; historians argue that they wanted the Western powers to walk out of Berlin and afterwards out of West Germany ◦ recent evidence suggests that at best what Stalin hoped was to convince the allies to come back to the negotiation table ◦ West Berlin were starved, through air traffic, bring in food and fuel to West Berlin through air corridors –Americans and British pulled off an organizational miracle by organizing a quarter of a million flights into West Berlin, making sure West Berlin will remain supplied ▪ in the end, outstanding allied success – only way USSR would be able to stop this transport would be to shoot down unarmed cargo planes (Stalin would never go that far) • no way USSR could hold hostage West Berlin, lifted the blockade – humiliating defeat for the USSR, symbolic victory forAllies ◦ if Stalin wanted to take West Berlin he could have done it in a day, but this would have meant formal, direct warfare against the allies ▪ did not want war, wanted diplomatic solution • West clearly received two signs of the eastern bloc: ◦ they will work no matter what to undermine democratic government (as is case with Czechoslovakia) ◦ if things do not go their way, would challenge the West – willing to risk confrontation (carried out coup d'etat and militarily challenged the western states) • caused nothing less than full militarization of the Cold War to defend its own national interests – much more than an ideological standoff • March 1947 –Anglo-FrenchAlliance signed, but pointless because Germany is no longer a threat (defeated, divided and weak) ◦ France and Britain, both declining great powers in the process of losing their own empires, would not be able to stand up to the Soviet Union ▪ separated geographically from the USSR ◦ came up with idea of including Belgium, Poland and Luxembourg • 1948 Brussels Pact – ostensible opponent is Germany but the defence pact is meant as defence against communism and USSR ◦ would not have the ability to stand up to USSR, did not have the manpower or economic means – decolonization going on • all eyes turned to US, Americans immediately responded by recalling all theAmericans and reintroducing conscription, compelled everyone between age of 21-28 to serve for 2 years in the US army – ensuring they'll have enough men to call in if USSR did invade ◦ best case scenario they could have brought maybe 100 000 men from the US, still not enough to stave off hypothetical invasion by the Soviet Union • new solution to save Western Europe – NorthAtlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) ◦ instigated by the British, felt that Brussels Pact was insufficient ◦ approached both Canada and US so northern European hemisphere would be defended • April 4, went contrary to UN Charter – no one is allowed military organizations, since it invites another military organization ◦ regional defence was allowed, not an international military organization – loopholeArticle 52, created NATO to safeguard Western Europe • late 1948-9, Soviet Uni
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