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HIS344Y1 (120)
Ebba Kurt (12)

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University of Toronto St. George
Ebba Kurt

– deeper issues to prevent detente – LatinAmerica – Cuban Missile Crisis – deeply concerned US because no state had dared to cross over theAtlantic Ocean to challengeAmerica's sphere of influence – Lain America was a hotbed for potential revolutions and potential social turmoil since conditions were very similar to Cuba – had to address underlying causes that aid the spread of communism – social discontent – dictatorships – poverty – the solution is to invest money into LatinAmerica (the very issue that Truman and Eisenhower refused to do) – no Marshall aid for LatinAmerica - US would never invest as they did in Europe – this is something that Kennedy and Johnson administrations registered was a mistake – if they didn't address the underlying issues more Cubas would follow – Alliance for Progress – promised Latin America 20 billion in aid to address the most important social injustices and allow some kind of land reform, improve education and health care, provide jobs in order to prevent new communist regime – was an utter failure for a number of reasons – LatinAmerica not the same as Europe – did not have the same infrastructure, no heavy industry to speak of, no roads, bridges or railways to allow transport of goods and establishment of proper economy – lacked an educated elite – had no middle class – the engine that carried out the most important economic miracles in Europe – while US invested some money it went into upkeeping the LatinAmerican armies or into the pockets of the dictators – Latin America not changed at all by infusion ofAmerican aid – by the mid 60s Johnson himself forgot about the entire issue, preoccupied by Vietnam – having seen failure of Alliance for Progress, came up with Mann Doctrine – changing criteria for who would supportAmerican support and who would be maintained byAmerican aid – any state with criteria of stability and dependability would qualify forAmerican support – dropped the two most important ingredients – democratization and infrastructure change – even a dictatorial right-wing country would qualify forAmerican aid so long as they remained stable and dependable (i.e. followAmerican foreign policy) – a host of revolutions and communist attempts to topple governments would follow given the social injustices – Dominican Republic, forces Johnson to use a heavy hand, use military intervention in another state – demonstrated fear of communism – very close to Cuba (300 miles), even closer to Puerto Rico which was a US-controlled territory – direct threat against US – right-wing dictatorship, landless peasants seeking survival – conditions were identical to those in Cuba in the 50s – Americans decided to cut their ties with the dictator, assassinated with the knowledge of theAmerican government – Bosch was a left-leaning individual, first attempt was land reform, pretty much followed in footsteps of Castro – Americans declared this to be totally unacceptable – after a few months Bosch was overthrown by Cabral – totally incompetent leader, created a dictatorship, raised spectre of a real communist regime – this is what compels Johnson to turn back his attention from Vietnam to LatinAmerica, orders US marines to land in Dominican Republic – take over Dominican Republic, promise free elections after control was assured – only 58 communist names, half were either dead or jailed, but this legitimized action – by 1966 US forces pulled out – made it public that they would never tolerate even the potential for communist takeover in LatinAmerica – Johnson Doctrine – theAmericas would work together and cooperate to prevent Castro-like regime from taking over anywhere else, May 1965 – there is a precedent that US would keep following time and again relating to Latin America developments – the whole operation was cheap in terms of financial and military terms for US, made Johnson feel that the same could be done in Vietnam – South EastAsia – conflict already in Vietnam, prevent domino effect – if Vietnam fell then surely Laos and Cambodia would follow, unacceptable – has to be curtailed and prevented, intervention inevitable – domino theory never came true – Thailand sympathized with theAmerican cause but never allowed closer relationship – Burma also sympathetic to the cause, but stayed out ofAmerican sphere of influence – Indonesia – superpowers came to blows – Sukarno exploited both sides (just as India did) – remained non-aligned and played off USSR and US and got the best out of the competition – Communist Party of Indonesia kept in balance by army which was US trained, followed US leadership especially in terms of communism – what complicated the situation was Britain – Singapore, major trading centre, British had one of the most important naval base in Singapore after Suez, hell-bent on holding on to Singapore – felt that if they got involved in the regional politics they could show America their worth and hold on to the naval base – offered Malaysia to take over Singapore and thus have British support there, Malaysians would have ethnic superiority over Chinese minority – Chinese majority created political instability because of support for communism – British would have their naval base and Malaysians would get an ethnic Malay population – what they did not count on was Indonesia and Philippines reactions to this idea – all three states claimed the eastern part of Malaysia – Konfrontasi – border clashes between – brought in both superpower patrons, quartered Sukarno and wanted to score a point – Suharto carried out a coup against Sukarno, established a dictatorship which sided closely with US – US scored a diplomatic coup against USSR in the region – this made the Soviet Union even more interested i
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