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Nov 5 The Scientific Competition & The Berlin Crisis

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

November 5 , 2013 The Scientific Competition Key Words Notes  All the countries US, UK and Soviet Union wanted to represent their own economic systems as the superior economic systems and the way to go and as the future. - However in the end the Soviet Union had no chance what so ever. - Even though Soviet Union was richer in Natural resources the ideology and the economic aspects of it precluded a victory. It was impossible for them to reach America . - However the Soviet Union still managed for quite a while to represent itself and it's political system and ideology as unattainable, but also as superior. That had a lot to do with another aspect of the competition. And that relates to the scientific competition. a. the two scientific communities fought it out through out the cold war. b. in particular in the first decade both sides saw to achieve spectacular results and though those results to provide and convince the rest of the world that their system was the one that would lead the bright future and ensure that majority of the population had a good standard of living. - However, keep in mind that it was the Soviet Union who took the advantage of the initial break through and the spectacular results. And by doing so they gained another 20-30 years of life to compete with the Americans. - More so, the Soviet Union, although was rich in natural references, in political and in every other facet of economic life it was poorer than the United States. If you think of it the Bolshevik resolution in 1943-at times the Soviet Union was not only barely able to feed its population at times it failed in other basic responsibility. We do have several occasions in the revolution when the soviet population suffered a lot and lost millions of lives. - Yet, imagine that society despite all of its backwardness and imperfect political system and the economic ideology pretty much eliminates ingenuity and incentives and so on. They managed to outsmart and outperform. At one stroke they presented the Soviet Union as the future of the world. you cannot have it any better than this. these were all in the public eye.  Therefore, how did the Soviet Union manage to do this?  The Space Race. How did the space race start? You have to keep in mind Khrushchev’s thaw in the mid 1950s. when eh approached the western states and said that co-existence is the way to go. We do not have to fight with the west, but that both of us can co-exist at the same time. that meant for the first time since 1945 scientific cooperation’s between the two blocs.  The first manifestation of that was a promise to work together in space exploration and to work together on scientific projects related to space programs that were related to the sun and moon. That came in the form of international astronautically federations in July 1955. - both parties not only participated and offered cooperation’s and exchange of scientific results, but also stood up and made declarations. During the conference an American delegate stood up and said that in the interest of the world we offer and promise to launce a satellite by next year. So by next year we will launce a satellite and break through that barrier and produce a scientific model. - Once the Americans said that two days later the Soviet delegate at the very end of the conference made a pledge that the Soviet union too will launce a satellite and break through scientific barriers. - Why was this the case? Why did the soviet feel the need to match the Americans in the proposal. They feared that the Americans wanted to start a space race. They feared that the Americans falling back and relaying on their superior technology and industrial base to excel and become better than the Americans. They wanted to take the competition on a new field and area and overpower Soviet Union. - That was far from the American mind. Eisenhower had other things on his mind. He didn’t want to start a competition in an area where the Americans did not know much. -  Eisenhower’s concerns and objectives. - Eisenhower’s concerns came from an entirely different direction. - His concern was to ensure that the Americans could keep an eye on the Soviet Union, and all the develops-both military and economic ones. a. It was this year that the Soviet Union openly rejected Eisenhower’s idea of an open sky. Basically allowing each side to minority the political and economic developments of the other. b. That being the case Eisenhower waned to make sure the Russians will not pull up a surprise and perhaps launce a preemptive strike against the Americans. - However that required a constant monitoring of the Soviet Union. The only way to do that was to either sends a spy plane hanging over the Soviet Union day in and day out or breaking through scientific barriers and creating a satellite. a. the reason why he opted for a satellite was better was because of few reasons’ i. first to send a spy plane always carried the risk of being shut down or provoking a conflict and perhaps even trigging a war. sending a spy mission back then was not accepted. At times it would be taken as a declaration of war. Thus Eisenhower was concerned that eventually the Russians would use it as a pretext attack. ii. The other reason why Eisenhower was concerned and wanted to go a step forward rather than a spy mission was because back then in the mid 50’s what consisted of state air space was not yet determined. He said that if we wait the soviets would eventually declared the space over the Soviet Union up into the infinite cosmos. Therefore would never allow us to go over it and by pass that without creating an international conflict. however, if we manage to create a satellite and launch it and allow it to go over the world the soviet union would be forced to accept a fate that was complete and never declare the air space over the soviet union as infinite. That would allow us to spy on the Soviet Union, to gather information without creating an international crisis. - However, how does one achieve it? What is the way to go around it. You have to keep in mind that the United States, unlike the Soviet Union was not centrally controlled. Every branch of the American armed forced was independent and competed against one another. All three wanted to be the beneficiaries of this program, wanted the resources attached to this program and you were talking about billions of potential dollars. As a result there was an army-navy-air force competition. They started a missile program to build the proper system to allow them to launce a satellite. Constantly competing with one another - Wanted to avoid a potential confrontation with the Soviet Union he decided than such program, would be best around handled and administrated by civilian agencies. The Russians could never charge the Americans with spying if that research program was to be run by civilian agencies. Thus in the summer of 1957 there was a … to create such an institutions. - In the summer of 1958 NASA was created and national astronomical space administration. a. It was given a budget of 100 million dollars to begin with. b. It was also allowed to gather some of the best scientist in the United States. c. NASA achieved some great victories. However it needed time, and indeed it took time for the Americans to create a proper program.  Khrushchev’s concerns and objectives: - While Eisenhower struggled with these ideas Khrushchev very much had an agenda of his own. - In some ways it was similar to the agenda of Eisenhower. - Khrushchev too was concerned about the development of the United States military capabilities. Khrushchev was also concerned that the Americans might pull out a surprise attack. However his decision to launch a satellite program was not because of these concerned, but because he realized of the fact that the United States in a steady economic development could never reach it. What he wanted was very similar to Eisenhower. He wanted to achieve spectacular scientist results. Almost identical to his program of building socialism in Africa. He could not transform the entire continent, therefore he only picked a few cases of which would become windows of socialism. He followed the same approach for the space race. He could not match the United States across all platforms. Therefore only occasional successes would suffice. However those had to be spectacular successes and had to be so great and important that it would move the Soviet Union as being ahead o the United States. - Khrushchev did achieve his objective. Before the Americans even got ff the ground he achieved his objective. Utilizing already existing technologies, (both the Americans and the Russians borrowed from German technologies) and grew for the first time. they caught the Americans and the rest of the world off guard and shocked them. - October 4 1957 the primere night of Leave it to Beaver first time televised in the United States. The entire nation was glued to the TV. 15 minutes into the show it was suspended and it was terminated. The announced came through to tell the American public that the Russians managed to launch a satellite into space. This was shocking and was reported all over the world. the Russians had such propaganda with it. a. they attached a radio under the satellite than kept beeping. It allowed all radios all over the world to intercept it. b. Therefore making apparent to the whole world apparent that the Russians broke through. - Why was this such as success? As the Americans said later on, Edward Teller father of the American Hydrogen bomb, “the Americans lost a more significant and important battle than the battle of pearl Harbor.” Furthermore, as Johnson’s said “the first step to control the universe was that whoever had the advantage of the height had the advantage flaunting the satellite had the advantage of delivering the first blow” it was this that shook the American administration to the core. After all America at this point was seen as a pinnacle of technological advancement. and the backward and poor Russians by one stroke were able to overtake the Russians. - The satellite itself 180 pounds also told the American military leaders that the missile launched could have 180 pounds of nuclear warhead. The American at this point were nowhere close to the having that technology. Their response to Sputnik was the Vanguard Project in December 1957 that could lift only 8 pounds satellite. Khrushchev mockingly said the untied states could only launch a grape into the satellite. - The Americans had televised it openly to illustrate that they were on an equal footing with the Russians. Sure enough barely had it lifted off the ground it came crashing down and exploded in front of the 40 million American viewers. It was a terrible debacle for the Americans. - Soon after Sputnik was launched the Russians launched a dog into space in the same year in November 1957- Ruff…Ruff…Ruff…Laika. This was the first living organism to be launched into the space. This demonstrated their technological advantage over the United States. It became a sensation. By some accounts a living proof that actually the soviets ha the advantage over the United States. - As it turned out that while the Russians did gain spectacular success it did raise the eye of the British Pet Association. - In the end the Russians scored exactly what Khrushchev had wanted. a. international successes: didn’t rally change the balance of power between the two however it did give an appearance of an upper hand. b. -  The Manned Mission - in 1961 April there Russians managed to lance the first man Yuri Gagarin in Vostok I. a. this was a tremendous success. Even the Americans had to acknowledge. It was an incredible success. For 108 minutes. It demonstrated that the Russians actually did lead the world in space. b. He retuned back as a hero of the world. he was even on the cover on TIME magazine. The soviets chose a good-looking person, because in the end he would be representing the Soviet Union. The Russians wanted the rest of the world toe believe that Russians were good looking. c. When he returned he was made a hero of the Soviet Union. Borrowing a page from the United States for the first time in the life of the Soviet Union it was televised live. When he landed in Moscow and was greeted by Khrushchev. He became a popular individual thereafter. What the Russians did not show speaks volumes against Russian society. what they did not show was the full picture. That was when Gagarin landed in Moscow to be greeted by the world his shoe laces are undone. He later on admitted that he was terrified of slopping on the carpet in front of everyone. Why was this a possibility? It all comes down to soviet economy. The soviet economy did not produce shoelaces that would measure to the shoes. They produced uniform shoelaces about a meter long. It did not matter if they were for adults or for children. This speaks of the mentality of the Soviets. d. Gagarin landed in Soviet Union to receive congratulations. Thereafter the United States, Western Europe, Africa, everywhere was greeted as a hero.. - Afterward the Americans had to answer somehow. In May 1961 Freedom 7 was a failed mission. Alan Shepard never reached orbit. His spacecraft remained in the atmosphere. After a few minutes returned back to earth. Again, this demonstrated how much ahead the Soviet Union was. - Vostok II (vostok means east. symbolizing the rise of the east- soviet union) in august 1961 Ghermantitov the second cosmonaut orbited for a day and a half around earth. This demonstrated the ability to live in space. This was a huge advancement. - Only a year after in February 1962 did the Americans match the soviet technology. John glen reaching through orbit and going around the world several times and coming back. - Apparently it seems that in the 1960’s the American’s had the advantage and reaped the benefits all over the world. diplomatic coup after coup. That was not all. - Dual combo: that was not all. They continued by sending two space ships into space at the same time in august 1962. These were Vostok III and Vostok IV. In addition trying for the first time to connect the spacecraft and making living in space a possibility in the future. All of these were huge developments and steps forward. a. in mid 60 in Hungary there was this huge Soccer game. about 60,000 people in the stadium. It was night. During the first half, after 25 mins after the game started all the lights were turned off. The announcers made an announcement to look up at the sky. The two space ships were going to fly over the capital Budapest. 50,000-60,000 people witness these two spacecraft. b. This was important because the Hungarian had no love for the Russians. However, at that moment it seemed that communism did triumph. The Americans were not even close to that. The Hungarian simply awed by such development. - By 1962 the Russian were able to send the first women and civilian into space. Valentina Tereshkova in June 1963. Khrushchev did not care about this, because it cost a lot of money. however in terms of diplomacy and public relations you could not have had it better. They decided to send women to show the possibility of communism. They wanted to illustrate that Communism was about gender equality, even though it turned out Khrushchev hated Tereshkova. However she was sent there scoring more victories for the Soviet Union. - Voskhod 3: Alexei Leonow: first Space walk March 1965, Finally in the mid 60s there was an achievement by the Soviets. This one allowed the astronaut to leave the space craft-going into space and floating there for 8 and half minutes and going back. This was tremendous result. - However, one has to be aware that all of this came at a tremendous cost. Not just in terms of money, which could have been used better. If Khrushchev had wanted to spend that money on the people, but he did not. These spectacular scientific discoveries bought in more positive results for the Soviet Union than a 20-30 year attempt to catch up with America in terms of standard of living. - Prices paid: a. nedelin catastrophe October 1960: major explosion at the soviet space station fueling a rocket and misfiring. The missile blew up and burned a 150 top military leaders and scientists. it was not announced till the collapse of the soviet union. It was kept top secret. - Valentin Bondarento March 1961: burned astronaut. He burned up in his spacecraft during a test. The Russians had experimented in pure oxygen. Had they published that news the Americans may have avoided similar fate. They did not know. Therefore their own astronaut perished in a similar experiment-by using pure oxygen as air for the aircraft. - Lenovo’s space walk almost ended up in a tragedy. The Russians tried out their space suit several times. However, they tried it under normal circumstances. When he went up to space and walked out his suit puffed up a lot more than it had done under normal atmospheric pressure. he couldn’t get to his spacecraft because the suit expanded too much. he had to deflate his own suit. This was a major risk. - Apollo I Jan 1967  In the early 1960’s the Russians were seen as space explorations. Sure enough Khrushchev reaped the benefits. He took over the Soviet Union. the first stage of the science competition belonged to the Soviet Union. however Kennedy demanded a reply and committed himself to catch up with the Soviet Union.  The Moon Race: - Kennedy wanted a response. So he asked his vice president to look into a program that would allow him to not only catch up with the Soviet Union, but also pass it. - The US senate a study of the competition between the two states. The conclusion of tat study in 1960 was that if the United States government does not catch up the Soviet Union would surpass the United States in influence all over the world. it is imperative for the United States to match success by success, and to demonstrate an ability of the capitalist economy and the free world. - Based on that in 1961 Kennedy approached his Vice President and asked him to look around for an rea to engage in which they could over come to the Soviet union. after a year of study Johnson returned back and produced a program and said it was the moon. a. it would be just spectacular as the early soviet union achievements b. it does give us enough time (from 1961 till the end of the decade) to create an industrial and technological base that would suffice for us to achieve that break through. c. It isn’t that distance in the future that the Russians would still not be able to match us. therefore it would guarantee an American success. - It was this that prompted Kennedy to deliver a major speech at Rice University. He said “we chose the moon not because it is easy, but because it is hard.” In September 1962. Therefore challenging the industrial and technological society to work together. It is this time when scientific programs were established in American universities. Up until this point no one cared about it. The political climate became so dire that the Americans had to response. - The discussion between James Webb-John Kennedy (NASA director and president) he asked him if it was possible to reach the moon and James said, “yes, however we need time because we do not know anything about the moon” Kennedy said that he better do it because they were spending billion on the Space program. The whole purpose was to defeat the Russians. In other words true scientific exploration and true space exploration was at second. Primarily it was a political game and caused propaganda. However, we did end up with scientific exploration. But that was only as a second rate consequence. - Given that the American lay down the conditions of the Apollo and the Gemini program. Which was training for the landing of the moon. It established new scientific basis, new spacecraft that would allow several cruise and allow activity outside of it. All of this had to be experimented and tried out. - The Russians also tried their own but they could not match the system. their systems Soyuz and Zond failed. That gave the Americans 5-6 years of advance. By July 1969 Apollo II landed on the moon. - Armstrong “one Small step for a man giant leap for mankind.” This was symbolic. However in a way it demonstrated the American ability, superiority, and incredible technological advances. Clearly beating the Russians at their own game. - from then on the Russians could always play catch up. At one point Kennedy offered to work together in 1962 to reach the moon. However given the optical climate and the mistrust that had developed by 1972 the Russians turned down the offer.  The Space race was won by the Americans. The early success that the Soviet Union had were easily over come. It was a great technological development to land on the moon than to launch a satellite or get a human into space. The Russians never recovered, and their space program since then went down. That being the case, and of course by the 1970s the political climate had changed considerably. Both sides decided to follow a détente in space . from 1975 to the early 1980s they were several space missions in the end they were able to join space stations showing the rest of the world that competition was not necessary always. They could work together hand and hand.  The essence of it is that the Americans managed to overcome the Russians, which means that the Russians had to fall back on politics and diplomacy- at times cooperation and at times conflict.  Sss.  The Berlin Crisis Key Words Notes  In some topics you may have to bring in histography. There are issues that a
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