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Ebba Kurt (12)

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Ebba Kurt

– division of Germany/Europe/the world – militarization of the Cold War – NATO was founded April 1949 – from Soviet point of view this is a challenge, Eastern bloc creates Warsaw Pact to counter – consequences of Korean War were tremendous – challenged US foreign policy and strategic thinking – national security council 68 (NSC-68) – set US FPfor the foreseeable future – immediately dismissed idea that peaceful co-existence can go on between USSR and USA – no more differentiation between Stalin, Mao and Kim – all seen as originating in Moscow, Soviet Communist attempt to takeover the world – was prompted well before Korean events, brought to government's attention inApril (28 months before Korean War) – what prompted NSC-68 – Czech coup-d'etat, wake-up call for Western governments – Berlin blockade from 48-9, Stalinist challenge – August 1949 – USSR develops nuclear bomb, breaks US nuclear monopoly – up until this point they didn't fear conflict from USSR, thought that they had the upper hand due to nuclear monopoly – any future conflict might include nuclear weapons, had to change their entire strategy – October 1949 – China turns Communist; too many coincidences and events – better be prepared for war with the USSR – essence of NSC-68 – had a number of premises – Soviet Union hell-bent on world ideological domination and control the world – since it tested first atomic bomb USSR reached parity with the US – main idea was that co-existence was unacceptable, had to confront USSR – deemed it necessary to overthrow the communist system, not through a hot war by undermining it from within – entire Eastern bloc had to go – a number of individuals challenged the NSC-68 – Charles questioned validity of both of the premises – how can the Soviets dominate if they haven't managed to recuperate after the devastation of the war, impossible to launch an attack on the US – only advantage USSR had was manpower, still didn't have true nuclear weapons, still had nuclear monopoly/advantage – in terms of army, navy and air-power, much better equipped and trained with bases all over the world – but it was impossible to change the minds of those in Washington, passed and accepted and set US foreign policy for the next two decades – how to approach future showdown with the USSR – had to increase conventional army, had to match soldier for soldier the USSR army – increase US forces in Europe – build more airbases around the Soviet Union and base nuclear bombers; build up deterrent to the Soviet Union, immediate nuclear attack on USSR from bases close to the Soviets – to integrate Western armies and have one unified military structure – joint military planning, coordinate plans of Western European states as well as US – Soviet Union found out very quickly about it and new approach of US, Stalin wanted to counter it by a counter-offensive (peace-offensive) – USSR warned through journals and diplomatic channels – “unmask NATO” – following Marshall Plan and NATO, full control of Western Europe, binding WE to US in terms of economics and military – if there was a confrontation between USSR and US, WE would be the first targets, any state that accepts NATO partnership puts itself at risk and WE should be aware – through NATO, Europe's fate becomes questionable – in event of nuclear war WE would be the first target of USSR, should think twice before joining US – in France and Italy there was sizable Communist Parties, there was a chance that the peace- offensive would work – the Korean War terminated the peace-offensive – NSC-68 changed NATO's policy – before this NATO had shield and sword strategy – 14 divisions had to retain the USSR for 5-8 days – shield – after 5-8 days the sword would come – all 68 nuclear bombs would be dropped on USSR – September 1950 - “forward looking strategy” – no longer would member states of NATO be allowed to run their forces independently – Korean example showed advantages of Communist force over nationalist force – had to have a unified command – in military confrontation separate bases would be the undoing of the western powers – military high command would have to be run by anAmerican general – these were the first steps to ensure the survival of WE – increase in US forces, double the US forces (have 4 divisions stationed in Central Europe and hope that they would be able to hold off Russian invasion) – cost of creating a new NATO both at home and in Europe demanded huge financial sacrifices – Truman administration demanded 50 billion dollars in defence budget – 400% increase from the previous year of 12 billion – as a third step they had to increase the number of NATO itself – 14 divisions was not enough to secure and defend WE, proposed at least 50 divisions – only then would WE be defended, present a deterrent for USSR to launch attack – problem with the 50 division NATO (would have solved disparity in manpower, viable military solution) BUT: not enough people by the members of NATO itself – impossible for Belgium, Luxembourg etc to provide a 50 division NATO – only one state that could theoretically provide enough soldiers, which was West Germany which is not in NATO – proposal to bring in West Germany brought immediate outrage – unacceptable, Britain, France and USSR would never allow it – dividing point between the Western powers – would they be allowed to be a full member, would they be in on the nuclear secrets – Western Germany was eventually incorporated into NATO – Britain, still smarting over their lost of power and prestige, decides to capitalize on the opportunity and recreate Britain as a great power – gave Britain opportunity to step up and create a third power equal to USSR and US, no longer have to follow steps of US – wanted to create a totally independent force particularly toAfrica andAsia, giving British experience, offering technical and economic aid toAfrica andAsia – WE would offer aid and support in return for necessary resources to create a third power – would have enough manpower and diplomatic prestige – problems: – but, full integration with WE was required, opening up the border was calculated by the British itself as annihilating Briti
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