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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.doc

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

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Lecture 12January 11 2011From Crisis to DtenteThe Aftermath of the CrisisBoth sides conducted several war games military experts argued that field experience was no longer necessary to conduct a strategic policythis form of warfare was ultimated by the aspects of nuclear warFollowing the Cuban Missile Crisis immediate steps were taken to form a closer relation between the two capitals in order to evade catastrophic nuclear war the establishment of speedier and directs communicationsMoscowWashington hotline was established June 1963 it was a teletype that breached the difficulties they experienced a year priorMoscow was deeply humiliated by the loss Strategies Khrushchev a to resume the quest for peaceful coexistence there was no way the Russians could win against the US and to avoid another Cuban Missile Crisis b to terminate their quest for parity with the US in living standards and economics and rechannel resources to build up their nuclear program and strategic weaponsKennedy established a closer relationship with the USSR he sent an American administrator Avarell Harriman to establish this link between the two states and to agree that in each case that they have a problem to solve it diplomaticallyThis established the dtenteDtenteIn the Bikini Island Test of 1954 the explosion was so strong and fallout was so huge that a Japanese ship was annihilated The Tsar Bomb of 1961 Russia created such a huge explosion that the crater is still visible from spaceNeither side would never reach an end to this build upboth realized that they needed to come to an agreement to limit the competition and testing of atomic bombsIn August 1963 both sides agree to limit some parts of the nuclear testing limited nuclear test ban treaty between the USUKSoviet UnionLimits the atmospheric and underwater tests but does not limit underground testing and reduce tensions between the US and USSR The Johnson Administration continued this program however what prevented them from signing a more meaningfulelaborate deal was a number of territorial deals The two most important are Vietnam a major standing block where Russia and the US were combatants and Europe BerlinNATOThe Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 meant that the great powers USSR US UK France and China would stop any other country in the world from establishing nuclear weaponsthey would be banned from other statesThis was not a perfect deal Israel did not sign it because of perceived threat from Arab states India also did not sign the treaty Nor did Pakistan sign the treaty This was a problem for many countries just as these 5 powers have nuclear weapons all other countries should be allowed to have nuclear weapons however there was a quid pro quo in order to limit the chances for nuclear warIn 1966 Johnson asked the Russians to sit downWhat changed was the second objective by the Russians to buildup the Soviet Union as a global power matching the US in nuclear strengththey denied food from their countrymen cut expenses in order to reach nuclear parity with the US
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