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Lecture 16

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Lecture 16February 15 2011Gravely wounded dtente is not completely dead In the 70s SALT II is agreed upon by Carter and BrezhnevThe End of Dtente The Nuclear Balance in EuropeNo matter how many problems and loopholes the negotiations still went on They achieved a crucial development in international relations to lessen friction between the two states and to limit the number of nuclear weapons especially the ones aimed at each other each possessedIntermediate and short range missiles were unaccounted forthus unlimited All of these missiles were based in Europe targeting each other employed by the Warsaw Pact and NATO These missiles were left outside of discussion brought the two military alliances into serious conflict and initiated a new arms race adding a great deal of tension in both Washington and Moscow on the overall direction of dtenteWhats wrong with these missiles Russia already had 600 such missiles targeting West Europe However they are inaccurateThey were replaced by Polaris missilesemploying these weapons the US and USSR reached parity in Europe up until the mid70sOnce you reach an agreement with the USSR you take them off the hook19761977 huge investments in shortintermediate nuclear system SS20 USSRSoviet Modernization The Soviet Union always had conventional arms superiority The Warsaw Pact was far more numerous than NATO What happened in the late 70s The Russians not only achieved nuclear superiority in Europe but superiority in conventional weapons Soviet conventional superiorityChain of Deterrence envisages a balance of power on every field Any time this equality is breached by either side conflict arises Fear that the USSR would use their military superiority against the US and West Europe political takeover or at least decoupling the US and Europe The Russians modernized their missiles threatening the balance of power in Europe Carter tried to prove his case to the Senate that SALT II was beneficial USSR was oblivious to the fact that their modernization posed a risk to the US and Western Europe and that the West was not happy with this fact The Soviets retorted that the United States never Carters attitude towards the European attitude was typical of his foreign policy 2 steps forward 1 step backwards inconsistent What did he do He immediately increased the military budget of the US by 5 He also convinced the European states to contribute 3 more to NATO This was a good answer to his critics at home He also increased the number of American troops in Europe to 30 000 Finally he agreed to create a rapid deployment force with would allow the Americans to come to the aid of NATO in case the Soviet Union ever attempted to take overstart a conventional attack These were all symbolic gesture that the Russian modernizationmilitary development was unacceptable and would be challenged by the United States As a last resort to show his commitment Carter reluctantly agreed to the development of the Neutron Bomb enhanced radiation weapons a bomb that would not destroy the material tanks buildings roads etc but would only kill people through radiation
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