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Lecture 2

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Department
History
Course
HIS344Y1
Professor
Vasilis Dimitriadis
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 2092110History of Europe 16481945Every since 1648 the Treaty of Westphalia states recognize that national survival is the most important objective100 years later the idea of the balance of power is brought forthTo ensure national survivalTo guard against the hegemony of any one stateAnd becomes the most important concept in international relations up until 1945The purpose of the balance of power is not to avoid wars but to guard against the rise of a hegemonIn fact war is part of the balance of powerThe BOP hasnt always been effective some states have always had advantages over others nation states vs empires Come the French Revolution the rise of nationalism ensues Nationalism and Liberalism or both challenge the BOP 18051807 Napoleon almost destroyed the European state system by harboring nationalism Napoleon was the arbiter of Europe he had the power to destroy states redefine borders etcHe shook the ideology statesmen etc of Europe to such an extent that thereafter they pledged to work together and never let a sole power become as powerful as Napoleon In this there was the will to recreate the world system one in which no one power could rule all however once you know how to destroy a system the BOP in this case its very hard to stop it from happening againThe Congress of Vienna is the international system developed to promise stability and stop nationalism and liberalismMilitarily two alliances rose aThe Quadruple Alliance to keep French power in checkbThe Holy Alliance a religiousideological alliance involving Russia Prussia and Austria to squash revolutionoThis alliance did however contain an alternative motive to ensure no revolution would take place in their own empiresbeing that each were tricultural nations With the creation of the BOP another problem arose it worked based on ideology and political power when Napoleon was defeated the allies granted territories to each other in order to keep things equal Austria became very multiethnic and unrest followed The first challenges to the BOP came 45 years later when Napoleon III beganthe Crimean WarDuring the period between Napoleon Bonaparte and Napoleon III Russia did not modernize the same extent as other nation states partly because the Tsars feared an intelligent and liberal people and thus fell behind When Russia was invaded by France they could not answer and did not stand a chanceRussia was totally defeated causing the Quadruple Alliance to fall apart because Britain fought Russia and the Holy Alliance also fell apart because AustriaPrussia did not come to Russias aid France was then defeated by Bismarck Germany
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