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End of Detente/Return to Confrontation

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Vasilis Dimitriadis

The End of Dtente 11-03-21 3:54 PM -a return to the very same attitude of the post ww2 yearsa return to the cold war attitude The Nuclear Balance in Europe -regardless of the number of loopholes and all the problems with SALT I, negotiations still went on -short and intermediate range missiles were left unaccounted for therefore the development and employment of these went unabated all of these were essentially based in Europe (employed by both NATO and Warsaw Pact) therefore although the ICBMs were controlled, the lack of control regarding these missiles reignited a new arms race and added a great deal of tension within both Moscow and Washington o question regarding the direction of dtente -SS-4 and SS-5crude and relatively inaccurate missiles 600 of these in the hands of the Soviets countered by the American polarissubmarine missiles as well as the F-111 (Which had nuclear weapons) by employing these weapons systems, both had achieved nuclear parity in Europe -1976-1977 Soviet Modernization Soviet investment into new weapons systemsthe SS-20 o Far more mobile than any of the previous missiles o Matching in accuracy the American weapons systems o Could be deployed with multiple warheads Americans felt this gave the Soviets the upper hand The Soviets had already held superiority in convention weaponsso for the first time they have a clear cut advantage (conventional and nuclear superiority) -the fear that this Soviet superiority would upset the chain of deterrence the necessity of parity worried that the soviets would take over Europeif not a military takeover, an attempt to exert a political control over western Europe o an attempt by Moscow to decouple US from Western Europe (basically get them out of Europe) o compel NATO members to leave NATO out of a fear for a conventional nuclear showdown -disagreements over the fate of SALT II occurred at the same time of this Soviet superiority -Russians blind to the fact that their modernization upset the regional balance of power therefore they refused to back down -Carters response typical of his foreign policy (two steps forward, one step back) o inconsistent increased U.S military defence budgets (5%) convinced the contribution of Western European states to NATO (3%) increased the number of American troops in Europe (30 000) an agreement to create a rapid deployment force o allow US to come to the aid fo Europe faster if the Soviet Union ever dared to make a conventional attack o a symbolic gesturethat America would not buckle down to the Soviets agreed to the development of a neutron bomb o enhanced radiationwould not destroy buildingsman-made structureswould only kill people o outrage among the worldgave Brezhnev impetus to his argumentthe main argument of the west is material wellbeing and possessions (so capitalist)they dont care about people o Carter eventually backed down after immense public pressure However only after Western Europe had accepted in principle the deployment of the neutral bomb NATOs Dual Track -the answer to the Russian modernization of missiles -NATO summit (Jan 1979) French, British and U.S
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