Conflict & Co-operation
September 18 2012
1648 – 1945 - Britain, France, Russia, Prussia/Germany – GrandAlliance
> European states
1945 – Collapse of the Grand Alliance
Post 1945 – United States/Soviet Union
> Non-European states
Stalin initiated the Cold War, to expand the Soviet Union to propagate Communism. >
Traditional interpretation (1950s, 60s, 70s)
TheAmericans instigated the Cold War, United States initiated the demise of the Grand
Alliance. Industry undamaged by the war, nuclear monopoly. Americans believed they
ought to dominate. Americans initiated the Cold War for hegemony > New Wave
1989 – Present: Both sides equally responsible. (After having access to secret archives)
February 1945 Meeting: Stalin, Churchill, – to discuss post-war development. Different
interests but genuine effort to work together.
Until 1945 Soviet Union was a neutral state
Roosevelt goals: wanted to bring in the Russians having seen Stalin’s willingness to
Roosevelt wanted Stalin to accept his vision of the United Nations; security council with
great powers as veto members; have Stalin bring in China as a member of the security
Churchill goals: limit soviet gains, limit soviet extension into eastern Europe, wanted
Stalin to accept France as a member of the security council (Britains buddy)
Stalin’s goals: Soviet national security; borders in western part, was attacked from the
west through Poland. Extend soviet borders further to the west. Have friendly nations
under soviet control. Roosevelt criticized for betraying Eastern European countries who ended up under
Soviet control. Rewarded Stalin with Japanese islands; undermined Western interests;
liberal Europe, human rights.
However, each leader made compromises. Primary example of international co-
Stalin accepted Roosevelt’s idea of China as a member of the security council (China
was a puppet of the United States).Also accepted France as part of the security council.
Created situation in the security council of 4 against one. Stalin agreed to a liberal
Europe. > FAIR DEAL
Roosevelt dies; Truman becomes president.
Truman suspended military and economic aid to the Soviet Union without warning in
1945. Truman was not sensitive to Russian suffering in the war.
Climate of hostility
July 1945 – allies meet; Truman, Labour Party (England), Stalin,
Eastern Europe – Soviet controlled, were not allowed democratic elections- breached
Mussolini Italy- Britain and United States recognized government without Stalin's
permission – breached Yalta agreement.
American concern over Poland. Stalin “if you care so much about Eastern Europe, let
me have control over Italy's development.”
United States: “O_O”
Powers agreed on Four D's for Germany. Envisioned Germany as anAgrarian society.
> information leaked to Germany from U.S media. Made Germany fight even further.
Soviet Union and United States reached a stale-mate on Germany's future and dropped
the issue. Atomic bomb - 1945.
> not intimidated; because bomb plans leaked.
September 1945 – London Meeting: Fate of Nazi Germany
British no longer willing to compromise with Soviet Union
Situation of Britain so weak and so unstable that any compromise will seriously harm
No decision over Bulgaria, Romania, Italian colonies
Moscow - Foreign Ministers Council Meeting
Unsuccessful as London meeting.
American compromise: offered to share nuclear technology with t